Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder commonly
found in children, which is recognized by hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. It is known that
the pathophysiology of ADHD is associated with neurobiological dysfunction. Although psychostimulants
are recognized as the therapeutic drugs of choice for ADHD patients, the side effects
might be of great concern. Ginkgo biloba is a promising herbal, complementary supplement that
may modulate the neuronal system in an ADHD-like condition. The beneficial effect of Ginkgo
biloba on ADHD-like symptoms may be related to the modulation of the system by novel molecular
mechanisms. Ginkgo biloba is known to modulate dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine signaling.
Flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones are the two major phytochemical components
present in the Ginkgo biloba preparations, which can exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective activities.
The pharmacological mechanisms of the phytochemical components may also contribute to
the neuroprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba.
In this review, we have summarized recent findings on the potential of various Ginkgo biloba preparations
to treat ADHD-like symptoms. In addition, we have discussed the pharmacological mechanisms
mediated by Ginkgo biloba against an ADHD-like condition.