The Role of the Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in Infective Endocarditis; A Narrative Review from 2000 to 2020

Author(s): Mohammad A. Noshak, Mohammad A. Rezaee*, Alka Hasani, Mehdi Mirzaii

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 21 , Issue 12 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are part of the microbiota of human skin and rarely linked with soft tissue infections. In recent years, CoNS species considered as one of the major nosocomial pathogens and can cause several infections such as catheter-acquired sepsis, skin infection, urinary tract infection, endophthalmitis, central nervous system shunt infection, surgical site infections, and foreign body infection. These microorganisms have a significant impact on human life and health and, as typical opportunists, cause peritonitis in individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Moreover, it is revealed that these potential pathogens are mainly related to the use of indwelling or implanted in a foreign body and cause infective endocarditis (both native valve endocarditis and prosthetic valve endocarditis) in patients. In general, approximately eight percent of all cases of native valve endocarditis is associated with CoNS species, and these organisms cause death in 25% of all native valve endocarditis cases. Moreover, it is revealed that methicillin-resistant CoNS species cause 60 % of all prosthetic valve endocarditis cases. In this review, we describe the role of the CoNS species in infective endocarditis, and we explicated the reported cases of CoNS infective endocarditis in the literature from 2000 to 2020 to determine the role of CoNS in the process of infective endocarditis.

Keywords: Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcal species, infective endocarditis, pulmonic valve endocarditis, native valve endocarditis, peritonitis.

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