Human Papillomavirus Induced Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers: From Mechanisms to Potential Immuno-therapeutic Strategies

Author(s): Mohd. Saeed*, Syed Mohd Faisal, Firoz Akhtar, Saheem Ahmad, Mousa M. Alreshidi, Mohd. Adnan Kausar, Shadab Kazmi, Amir Saeed, Mohd. Adnan, Ghulam Md Ashraf*

Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism

Volume 21 , Issue 3 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

The human papillomavirus (HPV) associated infections are the hallmark of cervical and neck cancer. Almost all the cases of cervical cancer (CC) and 70% of oropharyngeal cancer (OC) are, more or less, caused by the persistent infection of HPV. CC is the fourth most common cancer globally, and is commenced by the persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), predominantly HPV types; 16 and 18. In the light of the above facts, there is an immediate requirement to develop novel preventive and innovative therapeutic strategies that may help in lower occurrences of HPV mediated cancers. Currently, only radiation and chemical-based therapies are the treatment for HPV mediated neck cancer (NC) and CC. Recent advances in the field of immunotherapy are underway, which are expected to unravel the optimal treatment strategies for the growing HPV mediated cancers. In this review, we decipher the mechanism of pathogenesis with current immunotherapeutic advances in regressing the NC and CC, with an emphasis on immune-therapeutic strategies being tested in clinical trials and predominantly focus on defining the efficacy and limitations. Taken together, these immunological advances have enhanced the effectiveness of immunotherapy and promises better treatment results in coming future.

Keywords: Cervical cancer, Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), cytokines, immunotherapy, neck cancer, oropharyngeal cancer.

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