Spinal cord injury (SCI) is different from peripheral nerve injury; it results in devastating
and permanent damage to the spine, leading to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. SCI
produces a complex microenvironment that can result in hemorrhage, inflammation and scar formation.
Not only does it significantly limit regeneration, but it also challenges a multitude of transplantation
strategies. In order to promote regeneration, researchers have recently begun to focus their attention on
strategies that manipulate the complicated microenvironment produced by SCI. And some have
achieved great therapeutic effects. Hence, reconstructing an appropriate microenvironment after transplantation
could be a potential therapeutic solution for SCI. In this review, first, we aim to summarize
the influential compositions of the microenvironment and their different effects on regeneration. Second,
we highlight recent research that used various transplantation strategies to modulate different microenvironments
produced by SCI in order to improve regeneration. Finally, we discuss future transplantation
strategies regarding SCI.