Anticoagulation therapy is the cornerstone of treatment in acute vein thrombosis (DVT) and it aims to
reduce symptoms, thrombus extension, DVT recurrences, and mortality. The treatment for DVT depends on its
anatomical extent, among other factors. Anticoagulation therapy for proximal DVT is clearly recommended (at
least for 3 months), while AT for isolated distal DVT should be considered, especially in the presence of high
thromboembolic risk factors. The optimal anticoagulant and duration of therapy are determined by the clinical
assessment, taking into account the thromboembolic and bleeding risk in each patient in a case-by-case decision
making. Non-Vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were a revolution in the anticoagulation management
of DVT. Nowadays, NOACs are considered as first-line therapy in the anticoagulation therapy for DVT
and are recommended as the preferred anticoagulant agents by most scientific societies. NOACs offer a simple
route of administration (oral agents), a rapid onset-offset of their action along with a good efficacy and safety
profile in comparison with Vitamin K Antagonists (VKAs). However, there are issues about their efficacy and
safety profile in specific populations with high thromboembolic and bleeding risks, such as renal failure patients,
active-cancer patients, and pregnant women, in which VKAs and heparins were the standard care of treatment.
Since the available data are promising for the use of NOACs in end-stage chronic kidney disease and cancer
patients, several ongoing randomized trials are currently trying to solve that issues and give evidence about the
safety and efficacy of NOACs in these populations.