Progress of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in Tissue Repair

Author(s): Guifang Zhao, Yiwen Ge, Chenyingnan Zhang, Leyi Zhang, Junjie Xu*, Ling Qi*, Wenliang Li

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 17 , 2020


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Abstract:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a kind of adult stem cells with self-replication and multidirectional differentiation, which can differentiate into tissue-specific cells under physiological conditions, maintaining tissue self-renewal and physiological functions. They play a role in the pathological condition by lateral differentiation into tissue-specific cells, replacing damaged tissue cells by playing the role of a regenerative medicine , or repairing damaged tissues through angiogenesis, thereby, regulating immune responses, inflammatory responses, and inhibiting apoptosis. It has become an important seed cell for tissue repair and organ reconstruction, and cell therapy based on MSCs has been widely used clinically. The study found that the probability of stem cells migrating to the damaged area after transplantation or differentiating into damaged cells is very low, so the researchers believe the leading role of stem cell transplantation for tissue repair is paracrine secretion, secreting growth factors, cytokines or other components. Exosomes are biologically active small vesicles secreted by MSCs. Recent studies have shown that they can transfer functional proteins, RNA, microRNAs, and lncRNAs between cells, and greatly reduce the immune response. Under the premise of promoting proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis, they play a repair role in tissue damage, which is caused by a variety of diseases. In this paper, the biological characteristics of exosomes (MSCs-exosomes) derived from mesenchymal stem cells, intercellular transport mechanisms, and their research progress in the field of stem cell therapy are reviewed.

Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells-exosomes, tissue repair, microRNAs, lncRNAs, angiogenesis, RNA.

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