Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic multifactorial diseases characterized by partially unclear
pathogenic mechanisms including changes in intestinal microbiota. Despite the microbiota, alteration is well
established in IBD patients, as reported by 16RNA sequencing analysis, an important goal is to define if it is just
a consequence of the disease progression or a trigger factor of the disease itself. To date, gut microbiota composition
and gut microbiota-related metabolites seem to affect the host healthy state both by modulating metabolic
pathways or acting on the expression of different genes through epigenetic effects. Because of this, it has been
suggested that intestinal microbiota might represent a promising therapeutic target for IBD patients.
The aim of this review is to summarize both the most recent acquisitions in the field of gut microbiota and its
involvement in intestinal inflammation together with the available strategies for the modulation of microbiota,
such as prebiotics and/or probiotics administration or fecal microbiota transplantation.
Keywords: Inflammatory bowel diseases, gut microbiota composition, microbiota alteration, epigenetic changes, dysbiosis, ulcerative colitis,
Crohn’s disease, probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, fecal transplantation.
Lee ES, Song EJ, Nam YD. Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiome and Its Impact on Epigenetic Regulation. J Clin Epigenet 2017; 3: 2.
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