Acetate Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Nitric Oxide Production in Primary Rat Microglia but not in BV-2 Microglia Cells

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Author(s): Mitsuaki Moriyama*, Yasunori Nishimura, Ryosuke Kurebayashi, Tomoaki Minamihata, Kenji Kawabe, Katsura Takano, Yoichi Nakamura

Journal Name: Current Molecular Pharmacology

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Aims: To show that acetate attenuates neuroinflammatory responses in activated microglia.

Background: Dietary acetate supplementation alleviates neuroglial activation in a rat model of neuroinflammation induced by intraventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of acetate is not fully understood.

Objective: To determine whether acetate has inhibitory effects on LPS-induced neuroinflammatory responses in microglia.

Methods: We examined LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in primary rat microglia and BV-2 cells. Protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was determined by western blot analysis. The intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) were also evaluated.

Results: In primary microglia, acetate decreased LPS-stimulated NO production in a dose-dependent manner, reaching significance at greater than 10 mM, and cell viability was not affected. Acetate suppressed LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein concomitantly with the decrease in NO. The LPS-induced increase in intracellular ROS production was attenuated by acetate. In addition, acetate prevented LPSinduced reduction of GSH. Notably, such suppressive effects of acetate on NO and ROS production were not observed in BV-2 cells.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that acetate may alleviate neuroinflammatory responses by attenuating NO and ROS production in primary microglia but not in BV-2 cells. Other: All animals received humane care and the animal protocols used in this study were approved by the Ethics Committees for Animal Experimentation.

Keywords: acetate, microglia, neuroinflammation, nitric oxide, BV-2 cell line

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1874467213666200420101048
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