We systematically reviewed the literature regarding the impact of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
(DPP-4i) on vascular function, including endothelial function and arterial stiffness, as predictors of atherosclerosis
progression and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We searched
PubMed in order to identify clinical trials that investigated the effect of DPP-4i on vascular function in patients
with T2DM when compared with placebo. Although 168 articles were initially found, only 6 studies (total 324
patients) investigated the effect of DPP-4i in comparison with placebo, specifically linagliptin and sitagliptin,
and satisfied the inclusion criteria. There are scarce data to indicate that linagliptin may enhance endothelial
function and exert a slight beneficial effect on arterial wall properties. Sitagliptin seems to have a neutral effect
on these variables. Further trials are needed to elucidate the topic. The standards of reporting were in accordance
with the PRISMA guidelines.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, DPP-4 inhibitors, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, cardiovascular health, molecular cardiology.
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