Antithrombotic Treatment in Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of the Literature about Antiplatelet and Anticoagulation Strategies Used for Diabetic Patients in Primary and Secondary Prevention

Author(s): Gerasimos Siasos*, Georgia Skotsimara, Evangelos Oikonomou, Marios Sagris, Mystakidi Vasiliki-Chara, Evanthia Bletsa, Panagiota Stampouloglou, Panagiotis Theofilis, Georgios Charalampous, Dimitris Tousoulis

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 23 , 2020

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Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is on the rise globally. Its prevalence has nearly doubled during the last two decades and it is estimated to affect 8.8% of the global population. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the diabetic population and despite modern anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective therapeutic strategies, diabetic patients have at least a twice fold risk of cardiovascular events. The prothrombotic state in DM is associated with multiple determinants such as platelet alterations, oxidative stress, endothelial changes, circulating mediators. Thus, proper antithrombotic strategies to reduce the risk of CVD in this population are critical.

Methods: This article reviews the current antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents in the aspect of primary and secondary prevention of CVD in the diabetic population.

Results: The use of aspirin may be considered only at high-risk patients in the absence of contraindications. Cangrelor was not inferior to clopidogrel in preventing the composite outcome of CV death, myocardial infarction and revascularization without increasing major bleeding. Triple therapy in the subpopulation with DM significantly reduced the composite primary outcome of CV death, myocardial infarction or repeat target lesion revascularization. That was not the case for stent thrombosis, which was similar in both groups. Importantly, triple therapy did not result in increased bleeding complications, which were similar in both groups. However, cilostazol is linked to various adverse effects (e.g., headache, palpitations, and gastrointestinal disturbances) that drive many patients to withdrawal.

Conclusion: In conclusion, DM is a rapidly growing disease that increases the risk of CVD, AF, and CV mortality. Proper antithrombotic strategies to reduce CVD risk in DM are a necessity. Moreover, new antithrombotic treatments and combination therapies may play a critical role to overcome antiplatelet resistance in DM patients and reduce morbidity and mortality attributed to CVD.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, antiplatelets, anticoagulation, clopidogrel, myocardial infarction.

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VOLUME: 26
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Year: 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200417145605
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