Background: Despite the limited evidence about the effect of micronutrient supplementation on
the semen quality, many micronutrient supplements have been used to improve male fertility.
Approximately, 40%-50% of male infertility cases in general and up to 80% in men with
idiopathic infertility cases are caused by oxidative stress and decreased level of seminal total
Objective: To investigate the beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on sperm
concentration, motility and morphology.
Methods: A Pub Med, Google Scholar, Embase data, web of Science and Cochrane Library
database extensive research of the randomized controlled studies utilizing micronutrient vitamins
and supplements was performed.
Results: The existent international literature is rather heterogeneous and a definitive is difficult
to be drawn. Several micronutrients have beneficial effects on sperm parameters. Rational use of
micronutrients might be helpful for infertile patients.
Conclusion: Further randomized, controlled clinical trials are required to elucidate the efficacy
and safety of micronutrients and propose proper protocols for their use. A well-rounded,
balanced diet is more preferable than the widespread use of micronutrient supplements beyond
the recommended doses. Future studies should concern the pregnancy rate as a primary outcome
in their designs. Further research should be done to determine the appropriate antioxidant
compounds, the duration of the treatment, as well as a certain dose of antioxidants in clinical
practices. The pre-treatment evaluation of the seminal oxidative status is also an important
parameter to proceed with micronutrient supplementation without the risk of reductive stress.
Under these conditions, supplements could support the quality of sperm and help to alleviate