Background: Struvite/infection stone is one of the major clinical burdens in urinary tract
infections that is caused by the ureolytic behavior of pathogenic bacteria.
Objective: The current strategy for treating infective stones is mostly antibiotic therapy, which ends
in promoting resistance to the organisms. Hence in the present study, we investigated two phytocompounds,
eugenol (an allyl-substituted guaiacol) and vanillic acid (a phenolic acid) that are found to be
effective in inhibiting the urease enzyme of a nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.
Methods: The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity and the kinetic parameters were studied
in the presence and in the absence of eugenol and vanillic acid. Molecular docking and simulation
were done to understand the level of protein-ligand interactions and the interacting residues.
Results: Kinetic parameters obtained from the Michaelis-Menten plot show that both eugenol and
vanillic acid exhibit non-competitive inhibition of urease enzyme in a dose-dependent manner. In silico
studies showed that eugenol and vanillic acid have almost similar binding affinities to the regulatory
pocket of the modeled protein. Dynamics and simulation results indicate that the interaction of
ligands with the ARG373 residue of the protein provides a stable bound conformation.
Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that both the phytocompounds eugenol and vanillic acid
have a potential application as a new therapy for the inhibition of urease enzyme that could possibly
replace the complexions related to struvite stone formation.