Healthy Gut, Healthy Brain: The Gut Microbiome in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Author(s): Sreyashi Chandra, Md. Tanjim Alam, Jhilik Dey, Baby C. Pulikkaparambil Sasidharan, Upasana Ray, Amit K. Srivastava, Sonu Gandhi, Prem P. Tripathi*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 13 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The central nervous system (CNS) known to regulate the physiological conditions of human body, also itself gets dynamically regulated by both the physiological as well as pathological conditions of the body. These conditions get changed quite often, and often involve changes introduced into the gut microbiota which, as studies are revealing, directly modulate the CNS via a crosstalk. This cross-talk between the gut microbiota and CNS, i.e., the gut-brain axis (GBA), plays a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Huntington’s disease (HD).

Objective: We aim to discuss how gut microbiota, through GBA, regulate neurodegenerative disorders such as PD, AD, ALS, MS and HD.

Methods: In this review, we have discussed the present understanding of the role played by the gut microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders and emphasized the probable therapeutic approaches being explored to treat them.

Results: In the first part, we introduce the GBA and its relevance, followed by the changes occurring in the GBA during neurodegenerative disorders and then further discuss its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Finally, we discuss its applications in possible therapeutics of these diseases and the current research improvements being made to better investigate this interaction.

Conclusion: We concluded that alterations in the intestinal microbiota modulate various activities that could potentially lead to CNS disorders through interactions via the GBA.

Keywords: Gut microbiota, Gut-brain axis, CNS, Neurodegenerative disorders, Peripheral nervous system, Short-chain fatty acids.

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