Management of Hemorrhoidal Disease in Special Conditions: A Word of Caution

Author(s): Paola Salusso, Valentina Testa, Sylvie Mochet, Alberto Arezzo, Marco Ettore Allaix, Antonio Salzano, Mario Morino, Massimiliano Mistrangelo*

Journal Name: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2021


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Hemorrhoids are a common disease that is often considered an easy problem to solve. Unfortunately, some particular clinical conditions, including Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), pregnancy, immunosuppression, coagulopathy, cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and proctitis after radiotherapy, challenge hemorrhoids management and the outcomes.

Methods: Research and online contents related to hemorrhoids’ treatment in special conditions are reviewed in order to help colorectal surgeons in daily practice.

Results: There are very limited data about the outcomes of hemorrhoids treatment in these subgroups of patients. Patients in pregnancy can be effectively treated with medical therapy, reserving surgical intervention in highly selected and urgent cases. In case of thrombosed haemorrhoids, the excision allows a fast symptoms’ resolution, with a low incidence of recurrence and a long remission interval. In case of immunosuppressed patients, there is no consensus for the best treatment, even in most HIV positive patients, a surgical procedure can be safely proposed when indicated. There is no sufficient data in the literature related to transplanted patients. The surgical treatment of hemorrhoids in patients with IBD, especially Crohn’s Disease, can be unsafe, although there is a paucity of literature on this topic. In case of previous pelvic radiotherapy, it must always be considered that severe complications, like abscesses and fistulas with subsequent pelvic and retroperitoneal sepsis, can occur after surgical treatment of hemorrhoids, so a conservative treatment is advocated. Moreover, caution is recommended in treating patients with coagulopathy, considering possible complications (mostly bleeding) also after outpatient treatments. In case of portal hypertension and cirrhosis, a ‘conservative treatment’ is recommended. Bleeding hemorrhoids can be treated with hemorrhoidectomy when they do not respond to other treatments.

Conclusion: International literature is very scant about the treatment of patients affected by hemorrhoids in particular situations. A word of caution and concern even about the indication for minor outpatient procedures must be expressed in these patients, in order to avoid possible life-threatening complications. The first-line treatment is the conservative medical approach associated with the treatment of the primary disease.

Keywords: Hemorrhoids, treatment, complications, special conditions, pregnancy, HIV, thrombosis, coagulopathy, immunosuppressed patients, IBD, radiation proctitis, portal hypertension.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 15 February, 2021
Page: [22 - 31]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1574887115666200406121308
Price: $65

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