Lichens in Genus Parmelia: An Overview and their Application

Author(s): Arumugam D. Gandhi, Sivaji Sathiyaraj, Gunasekaran Suriyakala, Sivakumar Saranya, Tirumalpur N. Baskaran, Balasubramani Ravindran, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 21 , Issue 13 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Parmelia that belongs to the Parmeliaceae Family is a foliose lichen combined with one or two groups of fungi in Phylum Ascomycota or Basidiomycota and algae, which might be green algae or blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). It is generally called “Stone Flower,” “Charila,” “Pattharphool,” or “Shilaaapushpa” in India. Lichen can be generally found growing on walls, old trees and spread largely across India, especially in the mountain area. It is a source of edible organisms for people residing in some regions of Nepal and it is also cultivated in hillsides of Kashmir. It has been found that lichen contains a lot of distinctive chemical compounds such as evernic acid, lecanoric acid, lobaric acid, norstictic acid, physodic acid, and salazinic acid. Some species of this lichen are recommended traditionally for controlling diseases such as boils, bronchitis, inflammations, excessive salivation, toothache, vomiting, etc. It has also applied as an indicator for biomonitoring, astringent, carminative, demulcent, bitter, resolvent, emollient, laxative, sporofic, sedative, diuretic and considered for treating sores, bronchitis, excessive salivation, vomiting, tooth-ache, boils and inflammations. It has been utilized for preparing traditional food and acts as a bioindicator for air pollution and radiation. It shows antibacterial, antioxidant, antimycobacterial and antifungal activities, including haemolytic, anaesthetic, spasmolytic and antispasmodic and antitumour activities. It also has several unique phytoconstituents that could be in charge of different therapeutic activities, but the majority of them are still unexplored. The review mainly focuses on various facets, such as common names, synonyms, traditional uses, botanical descriptions, and pharmacological activities of seven species of Parmelia.

Keywords: Foliose lichen, Parmelia sp. chemical compound, therapeutic activity, bioindicator, phytoconstituents, antimycobacterial and antifungal activities.

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