Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are
chronic relapsing conditions resulting from immune system activity in a genetically predisposed individual. IBD
is based on progressive damage to the inflamed gut tissue. As its pathogenesis remains unknown, recent accumulating
data have demonstrated that IBD is a complex and multi-factorial disorder correlated with host luminal
factors, which lead to an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling. The growing understanding of
the molecular mechanisms responsible for IBD has suggested a wide range of potential therapeutic targets to treat
this condition. Some patients do not have a satisfactory response to current therapeutic medications such as antitumor
necrosis factor (TNF) agents, or their response decreases over time. As a result, IBD therapeutics have
been changed recently, with several new agents being evaluated. The identification of various inflammatory cascades
has led to forming the idea to have novel medications developed. Medications targeting Janus kinases
(JAK), leukocyte trafficking Interleukin (IL) 12/23, and Sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) are among these newly
developed medications and highlight the role of microbial-host interaction in inflammation as a safe promising
strategy. This systematic review aims to summarize different molecular targeting therapeutics, the most potent
candidates for IBD treatment in recent studies.
Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease, therapy target, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, medicinal plants, intestinal microbiota.
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