Non-pharmacological Strategies Against Systemic Inflammation: Molecular Basis and Clinical Evidence

Author(s): Rita Del Pinto, Davide Pietropaoli, Annalisa Monaco, Giovambattista Desideri, Claudio Ferri, Davide Grassi*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 22 , 2020

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Abstract:

Systemic inflammation is a common denominator to a variety of cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV diseases and relative risk factors, including hypertension and its control, metabolic diseases, rheumatic disorders, and those affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Besides medications, a non-pharmacological approach encompassing lifestyle changes and other complementary measures is mentioned in several updated guidelines on the management of these conditions. We performed an updated narrative review on the mechanisms behind the systemic impact of inflammation and the role of non-pharmacological, complementary measures centered on lowering systemic phlogosis for preserving or restoring a good global health. The central role of genetics in shaping the immune response is discussed in conjunction with that of the microbiome, highlighting the interdependence and mutual influences between the human genome and microbial integrity, diversity, and functions. Several plausible strategies to modulate inflammation and restore balanced crosstalk between the human genome and the microbiome are then recapitulated, including dietary measures, active lifestyle, and other potential approaches to manipulate the resident microbial community. To date, evidence from high-quality human studies is sparse to allow the unconditioned inclusion of understudied, though plausible solutions against inflammation into public health strategies for global wellness. This gap claims further focused, well-designed research targeted at unravelling the mechanisms behind future personalized medicine.

Keywords: Inflammation, immune system, gastrointestinal microbiome, diet, food, nutrition, exercise, oral hygiene, probiotics, prebiotics.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 22
Year: 2020
Page: [2620 - 2629]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200403122600
Price: $65

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