Carbon Dots as Nanotherapeutics for Biomedical Application

Author(s): Eemaan N. Cohen, Pierre P.D. Kondiah, Yahya E. Choonara, Lisa C. du Toit, Viness Pillay*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 19 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Carbon nanodots are zero-dimensional spherical allotropes of carbon and are less than 10nm in size (ranging from 2-8nm). Based on their biocompatibility, remarkable water solubility, eco- friendliness, conductivity, desirable optical properties and low toxicity, carbon dots have revolutionized the biomedical field. In addition, they have intrinsic photo-luminesce to facilitate bio-imaging, bio-sensing and theranostics. Carbon dots are also ideal for targeted drug delivery. Through functionalization of their surfaces for attachment of receptor-specific ligands, they ultimately result in improved drug efficacy and a decrease in side-effects. This feature may be ideal for effective chemo-, gene- and antibiotic-therapy. Carbon dots also comply with green chemistry principles with regard to their safe, rapid and eco-friendly synthesis. Carbon dots thus, have significantly enhanced drug delivery and exhibit much promise for future biomedical applications. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the various applications of carbon dots in biomedical fields. In doing so, this review highlights the synthesis, surface functionalization and applicability of biodegradable polymers for the synthesis of carbon dots. It further highlights a myriad of biodegradable, biocompatible and cost-effective polymers that can be utilized for the fabrication of carbon dots. The limitations of these polymers are illustrated as well. Additionally, this review discusses the application of carbon dots in theranostics, chemo-sensing and targeted drug delivery systems. This review also serves to discuss the various properties of carbon dots which allow chemotherapy and gene therapy to be safer and more target-specific, resulting in the reduction of side effects experienced by patients and also the overall increase in patient compliance and quality of life.

Keywords: Carbon dot, nanomedicine, bio-imaging, bio-sensing, chemotherapy, gene therapy, antimicrobial therapy, neurological diseases.

[1]
Zhou A, Song F, Yao W, et al. Efficient solid-state and dual-mode photoluminescence of carbon-dots/NaLuF4 microcrystals for multifunctional applications. J Alloys Compd 2019; 775: 457-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.10.125]
[2]
Xiao C, Lai L, Zhang L, et al. Spectroscopic and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Studies of Binding Interactions Between Carbon Nanodots and Serum Albumins. J Solution Chem 2018; 47(9): 1438-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10953-018-0792-2]
[3]
Sharma S, Singh N, Nepovimova E, et al. Interaction of synthesized nitrogen enriched graphene quantum dots with novel anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: spectroscopic insights. J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020; 38(6): 1822-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2019.1619625] [PMID: 31096863]
[4]
Mishra V, Patil A, Thakur S, Kesharwani P. Carbon dots: emerging theranostic nanoarchitectures. Drug Discov Today 2018; 23(6): 1219-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2018.01.006] [PMID: 29366761]
[5]
Boakye-Yiadom KO, Kesse S, Opoku-Damoah Y, et al. Carbon dots: Applications in bioimaging and theranostics. Int J Pharm 2019; 564: 308-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.055] [PMID: 31015004]
[6]
Atchudan R, Edison T, Perumal S, Vinodh R, Lee Y. Betel-derived nitrogen-doped multicolor carbon dots for environmental and biological applications. J Mol Liq 2019; 296111817
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.111817]
[7]
Devi P, Saini S, Kim KH. The advanced role of carbon quantum dots in nanomedical applications. Biosens Bioelectron 2019; 141111158
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.02.059] [PMID: 31323605]
[8]
Su Q, Wei X, Mao J, Yang X. Carbon nanopowder directed synthesis of carbon dots for sensing multiple targets. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2019; 562: 86-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2018.11.015]
[9]
Wang Y, Li Y, Xu Y. Synthesis of mechanical responsive carbon dots with fluorescence enhancement. J Colloid Interface Sci 2020; 560: 85-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.10.039] [PMID: 31654898]
[10]
Xiong Y, Schneider J, Ushakova E, Rogach A. Influence of molecular fluorophores on the research field of chemically synthesized carbon dots. Nano Today 2018; 23: 124-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2018.10.010]
[11]
Zhang S, Zhang L, Huang L, et al. Study on the fluorescence properties of carbon dots prepared via combustion process. J Lumin 2019; 206: 608-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlumin.2018.10.086]
[12]
Parvin N, Mandal T. Dually emissive P,N-co-doped carbon dots for fluorescent and photoacoustic tissue imaging in living mice. Mikrochim Acta 2017; 184(4): 1117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-017-2108-4]
[13]
Godavarthi S, Mohan Kumar K, Vázquez Vélez E, et al. Nitrogen doped carbon dots derived from Sargassum fluitans as fluorophore for DNA detection. J Photochem Photobiol B 2017; 172: 36-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.05.014] [PMID: 28514712]
[14]
Plácido J, Bustamante-López S, Meissner KE, Kelly DE, Kelly SL. Microalgae biochar-derived carbon dots and their application in heavy metal sensing in aqueous systems. Sci Total Environ 2019; 656: 531-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.393] [PMID: 30529956]
[15]
Feng H, Qian Z. Functional Carbon Quantum Dots: A Versatile Platform for Chemosensing and Biosensing. Chem Rec 2018; 18(5): 491-505.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.201700055] [PMID: 29171708]
[16]
Le Joncour V, Laakkonen P. Seek & Destroy, use of targeting peptides for cancer detection and drug delivery. Bioorg Med Chem 2018; 26(10): 2797-806.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2017.08.052] [PMID: 28893601]
[17]
Das R, Bandyopadhyay R, Pramanik P. Carbon quantum dots from natural resource: A review. Materials Today Chemistry 2018; 8: 96-109.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2018.03.003]
[18]
Niidome T, Huang L. Gene therapy progress and prospects: nonviral vectors. Gene Ther 2002; 9(24): 1647-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3301923] [PMID: 12457277]
[19]
Mohammadinejad R, Dadashzadeh A, Moghassemi S, et al. Shedding light on gene therapy: Carbon dots for the minimally invasive image-guided delivery of plasmids and noncoding RNAs - A review. J Adv Res 2019; 18: 81-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2019.01.004] [PMID: 30828478]
[20]
Gong J, Chen X, Tang T. Recent progress in controlled carbonization of (waste) polymers. Prog Polym Sci 2019; 94: 1-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2019.04.001]
[21]
Cai T, Zhang Y, Liu D, Tong D, Liu S. Nanostructured molybdenum/heteroatom-doped carbon dots nanohybrids for lubrication by direct carbonization route. Mater Lett 2019; 250: 20-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2019.04.107]
[22]
Knop K, Hoogenboom R, Fischer D, Schubert US. Poly(ethylene glycol) in drug delivery: pros and cons as well as potential alternatives. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2010; 49(36): 6288-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200902672] [PMID: 20648499]
[23]
Naik V, Gunjal D, Gore A, et al. Quick and low-cost synthesis of sulphur doped carbon dots by simple acidic carbonization of sucrose for the detection of Fe3+ ions in highly acidic environment. Diamond Related Materials 2018; 88: 262-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2018.07.018]
[24]
Cheng C, Shi Y, Li M, Xing M, Wu Q. Carbon quantum dots from carbonized walnut shells: Structural evolution, fluorescence characteristics, and intracellular bioimaging. Mater Sci Eng C 2017; 79: 473-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.094] [PMID: 28629043]
[25]
Hong Y, Uhm H. Production of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma torch at atmospheric pressure. Phys Plasmas 2005; 12(5)053504
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1914805]
[26]
Ma X, Li S, Hessel V, Lin L, Meskers S, Gallucci F. 2019 Synthesis of luminescent carbon quantum dots by microplasma process. Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification 140: 29-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2019.04.017]
[27]
Henam SD, Ahmad F, Shah MA, Parveen S, Wani AH. Microwave synthesis of nanoparticles and their antifungal activities. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 213: 337-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.01.071] [PMID: 30711904]
[28]
Yang P, Zhu Z, Chen M, Chen W, Zhou X. Microwave-assisted synthesis of xylan-derived carbon quantum dots for tetracycline sensing. Opt Mater 2018; 85: 329-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2018.06.034]
[29]
Choi Y, Thongsai N, Chae A, et al. Microwave-assisted synthesis of luminescent and biocompatible lysine-base carbon quantum dots. J Ind Eng Chem 2017; 47: 329-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.12.002]
[30]
Hou J, Li H, Wang L, et al. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on carbon quantum dots for fluorescent sensing of tetracycline in milk. Talanta 2016; 146: 34-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2015.08.024] [PMID: 26695231]
[31]
Liu S, Cui J, Huang J, Tian B, Jia F, Wang Z. Facile one-pot synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots by mild hydrothermal method and their applications in detection of Cr(VI) ions. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019; 206: 65-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2018.07.082] [PMID: 30081269]
[32]
Huang Q, Hu S, Zhang H, et al. Carbon dots and chitosan composite film based biosensor for the sensitive and selective determination of dopamine. Analyst (Lond) 2013; 138(18): 5417-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3an00510k] [PMID: 23833763]
[33]
Huang H, Xu Y, Tang C, Chen J, Wang A, Feng J. Facile and green synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles for cellular imaging. New J Chem 2014; 38(2): 784.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3nj01185b]
[34]
Sarkar T, Bohidar HB, Solanki PR. Carbon dots-modified chitosan based electrochemical biosensing platform for detection of vitamin D. Int J Biol Macromol 2018; 109: 687-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.122] [PMID: 29275197]
[35]
Jia X, Han Y, Pei M, et al. Multi-functionalized hyaluronic acid nanogels crosslinked with carbon dots as dual receptor-mediated targeting tumor theranostics. Carbohydr Polym 2016; 152: 391-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.06.109] [PMID: 27516286]
[36]
Stern R, Jedrzejas MJ. Hyaluronidases: their genomics, structures, and mechanisms of action. Chem Rev 2006; 106(3): 818-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr050247k] [PMID: 16522010]
[37]
Choi KY, Yoon HY, Kim JH, et al. Smart nanocarrier based on PEGylated hyaluronic acid for cancer therapy. ACS Nano 2011; 5(11): 8591-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn202070n] [PMID: 21967065]
[38]
Liu Y, et al. One-step microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of green luminescent carbon dots as optical nanoprobes. Carbon 2014; 68: 258-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.10.086]
[39]
Cermelj K, Ruengkajorn K, Buffet J, O’Hare D. Layered double hydroxide nanosheets via solvothermal delamination. Journal of Energy Chemistry 2019; 35: 88-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2018.11.008]
[40]
Mamaghani AH, Haghighat F, Lee CS. Hydrothermal/solvothermal synthesis and treatment of TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of air pollutants: Preparation, characterization, properties, and performance. Chemosphere 2019; 219: 804-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.029] [PMID: 30572234]
[41]
Yang J, et al. One-step synthesized carbon dots with bacterial contactenhanced fluorescence emission property: Fast Gram-type identification and selective Gram-positive bacterial inactivation. Carbon Elsevier Ltd 2019; 146: 827-39.
[42]
Liu Y, Duan W, Song W, et al. Red Emission B, N, S-co-Doped Carbon Dots for Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual Mode Detection of Fe3+ Ions in Complex Biological Fluids and Living Cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017; 9(14): 12663-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b15746] [PMID: 28339185]
[43]
Khan ZMSH, et al. ‘Hydrothermal treatment of red lentils for the synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots and its application for sensing Fe3+’, Optical Materials. Elsevier B 2019; 91: 386-95.
[44]
Guo L, Li L, Liu M, et al. Bottom-up preparation of nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots with green emission under microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment and their biological imaging. Mater Sci Eng C 2018; 84: 60-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2017.11.034] [PMID: 29519444]
[45]
Yuan M, et al. ‘One-step, green, and economic synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw, and their bio-applications in labeling, imaging, and sensing’, Applied Surface Science. Elsevier B 2015; 355: 1136-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.07.095]
[46]
Ding X, Liu Y, Li J, et al. Hydrazone-bearing PMMA-functionalized magnetic nanocubes as pH-responsive drug carriers for remotely targeted cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014; 6(10): 7395-407.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am500818m] [PMID: 24749476]
[47]
Jaleel JA, Ashraf SM, Rathinasamy K, Pramod K. Carbon dot festooned and surface passivated graphene-reinforced chitosan construct for tumor-targeted delivery of TNF-α gene. Int J Biol Macromol 2019; 127: 628-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.174] [PMID: 30708020]
[48]
Zhao Q, Wang S, Yang Y, et al. Hyaluronic acid and carbon dots-gated hollow mesoporous silica for redox and enzyme-triggered targeted drug delivery and bioimaging. Mater Sci Eng C 2017; 78: 475-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.059] [PMID: 28576012]
[49]
Yamina AM, Fizir M, Itatahine A, He H, Dramou P. Preparation of multifunctional PEG-graft-Halloysite Nanotubes for Controlled Drug Release, Tumor Cell Targeting, and Bio-imaging. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018; 170: 322-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.06.042] [PMID: 29936385]
[50]
Shen J, Zhu Y, Yang X, Li C. Graphene quantum dots: emergent nanolights for bioimaging, sensors, catalysis and photovoltaic devices. Chem Commun (Camb) 2012; 48(31): 3686-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cc00110a] [PMID: 22410424]
[51]
Xiao S, Huang C, Li Y. Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry. Beijing: Elsevier 2017; pp. 431-55.
[52]
Calabro R L, Yang D S, Kim D Y. Academic Press Inc. 2018; 527:pp Liquid-phase laser ablation synthesis of graphene quantum dots from carbon nano-onions: Comparison with chemical oxidation : In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 132-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.04.113]
[53]
Sattarahmady N, Rezaie-Yazdi M, Tondro GH, Akbari N. Bactericidal laser ablation of carbon dots: An in vitro study on wild-type and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Photochem Photobiol B 2017; 166: 323-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.12.006] [PMID: 28024283]
[54]
Peng Z, Han X, Li S, et al. Carbon dots: Biomacromolecule interaction, bioimaging and nanomedicine. Coord Chem Rev 2017; 343: 256-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2017.06.001]
[55]
Bozetine H, Wang Q, Barras A, et al. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZnO-carbon dots nanocomposites with good photocatalytic properties under visible light. J Colloid Interface Sci 2016; 465: 286-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2015.12.001] [PMID: 26674245]
[56]
Kołodziejczak-Radzimska A, Jesionowski T. Zinc oxide—From synthesis to application: A review. Materials (Basel) 2014; 7(4): 2833-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma7042833] [PMID: 28788596]
[57]
Djurišić A, Chen X, Leung Y, Man Ching Ng A. ZnO nanostructures: growth, properties and applications. J Mater Chem 2012; 22(14): 6526.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2jm15548f]
[58]
Dehvari K, Liu K, Tseng P, Gedda G, Girma W, Chang J. Sonochemical-assisted green synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots from crab shell as targeted nanoprobes for cell imaging. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 2019; 95: 495-503.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2018.08.037]
[59]
Li X, Wang H, Shimizu Y, Pyatenko A, Kawaguchi K, Koshizaki N. Preparation of carbon quantum dots with tunable photoluminescence by rapid laser passivation in ordinary organic solvents. Chem Commun (Camb) 2011; 47(3): 932-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0CC03552A] [PMID: 21079826]
[60]
Hsu PC, Chang HT. Synthesis of high-quality carbon nanodots from hydrophilic compounds: role of functional groups. Chem Commun (Camb) 2012; 48(33): 3984-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cc30188a] [PMID: 22422194]
[61]
Sahu S, Behera B, Maiti TK, Mohapatra S. Simple one-step synthesis of highly luminescent carbon dots from orange juice: application as excellent bio-imaging agents. Chem Commun (Camb) 2012; 48(70): 8835-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cc33796g] [PMID: 22836910]
[62]
D’souza SL, Deshmukh B, Bhamore JR, Rawat KA, Lenka N, Kailasa SK. Synthesis of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots from dried shrimps for cell imaging and boldine drug delivery system. RSC Advances 2016; 6: 12169-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5RA24621K]
[63]
Bhamore JR, Jha S, Singhal RK, Park TJ, Kailasa SK. Facile green synthesis of carbon dots from Pyrus pyrifolia fruit for assaying of Al3+ ion via chelation enhanced fluorescence mechanism. J Mol Liq 2018; 264: 2649-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.05.041]
[64]
Wang D, Wang X, Guo Y, Liu W, Qin W. Luminescent properties of milk carbon dots and their sulphur and nitrogen doped analogues. RSC Advances 2014; 4: 51658-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4RA11158C]
[65]
Prasannan A, Imae T. One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from orange waste peels. Ind Eng Chem Res 2013; 52: 15673-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie402421s]
[66]
Wei J, Zhang X, Sheng Y, et al. Dual functional carbon dots derived from cornflour via a simple one-pot hydrothermal route. Mater Lett 2014; 123: 107-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2014.02.090]
[67]
Ansi VA, Renuka NK. Table sugar derived Carbon dot – a naked eye sensor for toxic Pb2+ ions. Sens Actuators B Chem 2018; 264: 67-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2018.02.167]
[68]
Yang K, Liu M, Wang Y, et al. Carbon dots derived from fungus for sensing hyaluronic acid and hyaluronidase. Sens Actuators B Chem 2017; 251: 503-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.05.086]
[69]
Ensafi AA, Hghighat Sefat S, Kazemifard N, Rezaei B, Moradi F. A novel one-step and green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon dots from saffron for cell imaging and sensing of prilocaine. Sens Actuators B Chem 2017; 253: 451-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.06.163]
[70]
Liu W, Diao H, Chang H, Wang H, Li T, Wei W. Green synthesis of carbon dots from rose-heart radish and application for Fe3+ detection and cell imaging. Sens Actuators B Chem 2017; 241: 190-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.10.068]
[71]
Wang Q, Liu X, Zhang L, Lv Y. Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon nanodots through an eggshell membrane and their fluorescent application. Analyst (Lond) 2012; 137(22): 5392-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2an36059d] [PMID: 23037913]
[72]
Zhu H, Wang X, Li Y, Wang Z, Yang F, Yang X. Microwave synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with electrochemiluminescence properties. Chem Commun (Camb) 2009; (34): 5118-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b907612c] [PMID: 20448965]
[73]
Tang L, Ji R, Cao X, et al. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of water-soluble self-passivated graphene quantum dots. ACS Nano 2012; 6(6): 5102-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn300760g] [PMID: 22559247]
[74]
Zhai X, Zhang P, Liu C, et al. Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Chem Commun (Camb) 2012; 48(64): 7955-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cc33869f] [PMID: 22763501]
[75]
Ma CB, Zhu ZT, Wang HX, et al. A general solid-state synthesis of chemically-doped fluorescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications. Nanoscale 2015; 7(22): 10162-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5NR01757B] [PMID: 25985855]
[76]
Chen B, Li F, Li S, et al. Large scale synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanodots and their application for bioimaging. Nanoscale 2013; 5(5): 1967-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2nr32675b] [PMID: 23361842]
[77]
Mehta VN, Jha S, Kailasa SK. One-pot green synthesis of carbon dots by using Saccharum officinarum juice for fluorescent imaging of bacteria (Escherichia coli) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. Mater Sci Eng C 2014; 38: 20-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2014.01.038] [PMID: 24656348]
[78]
Qu D, Zheng M, Du P, et al. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts. Nanoscale 2013; 5(24): 12272-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3nr04402e] [PMID: 24150696]
[79]
Wang L, Wang X, Bhirde A, et al. Carbon-dot-based two-photon visible nanocarriers for safe and highly efficient delivery of siRNA and DNA. Adv Healthc Mater 2014; 3(8): 1203-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201300611] [PMID: 24692418]
[80]
Zhou J, Booker C, Li R, et al. An electrochemical avenue to blue luminescent nanocrystals from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). J Am Chem Soc 2007; 129(4): 744-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja0669070] [PMID: 17243794]
[81]
Lu J, Yang JX, Wang J, Lim A, Wang S, Loh KP. One-pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids. ACS Nano 2009; 3(8): 2367-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn900546b] [PMID: 19702326]
[82]
Nanocarbon. Fundamentals and Applications of Nano Silicon in Plasmonics and Fullerines 2008; 287-309.
[83]
Zawadzka A, Płóciennik P, Korcala A, Szroeder P. Optical properties of chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes thin films. Opt Mater 2019; 96109295
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2019.109295]
[84]
Zhang D, Yang H. Formation of carbon nanoscrolls from graphene sheet: A molecular dynamics study. J Mol Struct 2016; 1125: 282-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2016.06.083]
[85]
Maleki R, Afrouzi HH, Hosseini M, Toghraie D, Rostami S. Molecular dynamics simulation of Doxorubicin loading with N-isopropyl acrylamide carbon nanotube in a drug delivery system. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2020; 184105303
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105303] [PMID: 31901633]
[86]
Kamel M, Raissi H, Morsali A, Shahabi M. Assessment of the adsorption mechanism of Flutamide anticancer drug on the functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube surface as a drug delivery vehicle: An alternative theoretical approach based on DFT and MD. Appl Surf Sci 2018; 434: 492-503.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.10.165]
[87]
Falank C, Tasset AW, Farrell M, et al. Development of medical-grade, discrete, multi-walled carbon nanotubes as drug delivery molecules to enhance the treatment of hematological malignancies. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2019; 20102025
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2019.102025] [PMID: 31170511]
[88]
Li Z, de Barros ALB, Soares DCF, Moss SN, Alisaraie L. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: cellular uptake, biodistribution and applications in drug delivery. Int J Pharm 2017; 524(1-2): 41-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.03.017] [PMID: 28300630]
[89]
Yan GH, Song ZM, Liu YY, et al. Effects of carbon dots surface functionalities on cellular behaviors - Mechanistic exploration for opportunities in manipulating uptake and translocation. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019; 181: 48-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.05.027] [PMID: 31121381]
[90]
e S, Mao QX, Yuan XL, Kong XL, Chen XW, Wang JH. Targeted imaging of the lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum and their pH monitoring with surface regulated carbon dots. Nanoscale 2018; 10(26): 12788-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C8NR03453B] [PMID: 29947397]
[91]
Zhu S, Zhang J, Tang S, et al. Surface Chemistry Routes to Modulate the Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots: From Fluorescence Mechanism to Up-Conversion Bioimaging Applications. Adv Funct Mater 2012; 22(22): 4732-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201201499]
[92]
Kundu A, Lee J, Park B, et al. Facile approach to synthesize highly fluorescent multicolor emissive carbon dots via surface functionalization for cellular imaging. J Colloid Interface Sci 2018; 513: 505-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.10.095] [PMID: 29179091]
[93]
LeCroy G, Yang S, Yang F, et al. Functionalized carbon nanoparticles: Syntheses and applications in optical bioimaging and energy conversion. Coord Chem Rev 2016; 320-321: 66-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2016.02.017]
[94]
Havrdova M, Hola K, Skopalik J, et al. Toxicity of carbon dots – Effect of surface functionalization on the cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation and cell cycle. Carbon 2016; 99: 238-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.12.027]
[95]
Roy E, Patra S, Madhuri R, Sharma P. RETRACTED: Carbon dot/TAT peptide co-conjugated bubble nanoliposome for multicolor cell imaging, nuclear-targeted delivery, and chemo/photothermal synergistic therapy. Chem Eng J 2017; 312: 144-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.122]
[96]
Hu Y, Gao Z. Hot-injection strategy for 1-min synthesis of carbon dots from oxygen-containing organic solvents: Toward fluorescence sensing of hemoglobin. Dyes Pigments 2019; 165: 429-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2019.03.001]
[97]
Liu H, Ding J, Zhang K, Ding L. Fabrication of carbon dots@restricted access molecularly imprinted polymers for selective detection of metronidazole in serum. Talanta 2020; 209120508
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120508] [PMID: 31892057]
[98]
Amer Ridha A, Pakravan P, Hemati Azandaryani A, Zhaleh H. Carbon dots; the smallest photoresponsive structure of carbon in advanced drug targeting. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2020; 55101408
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2019.101408]
[99]
Lu L, Ma M, Tan T, et al. Novel dual ligands capped perovskite quantum dots for fluoride detection. Sens Actuators B Chem 2018; 270: 291-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2018.05.038]
[100]
Dong Y, Pang H, Yang HB, et al. Carbon-based dots co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur for high quantum yield and excitation-independent emission. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2013; 52(30): 7800-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201301114] [PMID: 23761198]
[101]
Liu T, Li N, Dong J, Luo H, Li N. Fluorescence detection of mercury ions and cysteine based on magnesium and nitrogen co-doped carbon quantum dots and IMPLICATION logic gate operation. Sens Actuators B Chem 2016; 231: 147-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.02.141]
[102]
Yang ST, Wang X, Wang H, et al. Carbon Dots as Nontoxic and High-Performance Fluorescence Imaging Agents. J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 2009; 113(42): 18110-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp9085969] [PMID: 20357893]
[103]
Zhu C, Zhai J, Dong S. Bifunctional fluorescent carbon nanodots: green synthesis via soy milk and application as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. Chem Commun (Camb) 2012; 48(75): 9367-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2cc33844k] [PMID: 22911246]
[104]
Kong B, Zhu A, Ding C, Zhao X, Li B, Tian Y. Carbon dot-based inorganic-organic nanosystem for two-photon imaging and biosensing of pH variation in living cells and tissues. Adv Mater 2012; 24(43): 5844-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201202599] [PMID: 22933395]
[105]
Li F, Liu C, Yang J, Wang Z, Liu W, Tian F. Mg/N double doping strategy to fabricate extremely high luminescent carbon dots for bioimaging. RSC Advances 2014; 4(7): 3201-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3RA43826K]
[106]
Huang S, Wang L, Zhu F, et al. A ratiometric nanosensor based on fluorescent carbon dots for label-free and highly selective recognition of DNA. RSC Advances 2015; 5(55): 44587-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5RA05519A]
[107]
Han Y, Tang D, Yang Y, et al. Non-metal single/dual doped carbon quantum dots: a general flame synthetic method and electro-catalytic properties. Nanoscale 2015; 7(14): 5955-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4NR07116F] [PMID: 25771786]
[108]
Li N, Liu S, Zhu Y, et al. Tuning gold nanoparticles growth via DNA and carbon dots for nucleic acid and protein detection. Sens Actuators B Chem 2017; 251: 455-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.05.071]
[109]
Pierrat P, Wang R, Kereselidze D, et al. Efficient in vitro and in vivo pulmonary delivery of nucleic acid by carbon dot-based nanocarriers. Biomaterials 2015; 51: 290-302.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.02.017] [PMID: 25771019]
[110]
Liu F, et al. ‘One-pot synthesis of NiFe2O4 integrated with EDTA-derived carbon dots for enhanced removal of tetracycline’, Chemical Engineering Journal. Elsevier B 2017; 310: 187-96.
[111]
Pang Y, Gao H, Wu S, Li X. Facile synthesis the nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots for selective fluorescence detection of heavy metal ions. Mater Lett 2017; 193: 236-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2017.01.149]
[112]
Shan X, Chai L, Ma J, Qian Z, Chen J, Feng H. B-doped carbon quantum dots as a sensitive fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection. Analyst (Lond) 2014; 139(10): 2322-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3AN02222F] [PMID: 24695439]
[113]
Qiao S, Li H, Li H, et al. Label-free carbon quantum dots as photoluminescence probes for ultrasensitive detection of glucose. RSC Advances 2015; 5(84): 69042-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5RA12829C]
[114]
Zhang R, Chen W. Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots: facile synthesis and application as a “turn-off” fluorescent probe for detection of Hg2+ ions. Biosens Bioelectron 2014; 55: 83-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.11.074] [PMID: 24365697]
[115]
Qian Z, Shan X, Chai L, Ma J, Chen J, Feng H. Si-doped carbon quantum dots: a facile and general preparation strategy, bioimaging application, and multifunctional sensor. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014; 6(9): 6797-805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am500403n] [PMID: 24707855]
[116]
Huang Y, Zhou J, Feng H, et al. A dual-channel fluorescent chemosensor for discriminative detection of glutathione based on functionalized carbon quantum dots. Biosens Bioelectron 2016; 86: 748-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.07.081] [PMID: 27476056]
[117]
Sun Q, Fang S, Fang Y, Qian Z, Feng H. Fluorometric detection of cholesterol based on β-cyclodextrin functionalized carbon quantum dots via competitive host-guest recognition. Talanta 2017; 167: 513-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.02.060] [PMID: 28340753]
[118]
Prajapati S, Jain A, Jain A, Jain S. Biodegradable polymers and constructs: A novel approach in drug delivery. Eur Polym J 2019; 120109191
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.08.018]
[119]
Mintz KJ, Mercado G, Zhou Y, et al. Tryptophan carbon dots and their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019; 176: 488-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.01.031] [PMID: 30690384]
[120]
Wiley DT, Webster P, Gale A, Davis ME. Transcytosis and brain uptake of transferrin-containing nanoparticles by tuning avidity to transferrin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013; 110(21): 8662-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1307152110] [PMID: 23650374]
[121]
Dixit S, Novak T, Miller K, Zhu Y, Kenney ME, Broome AM. Transferrin receptor-targeted theranostic gold nanoparticles for photosensitizer delivery in brain tumors. Nanoscale 2015; 7(5): 1782-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4NR04853A] [PMID: 25519743]
[122]
Jiang W, Xie H, Ghoorah D, et al. Conjugation of functionalized SPIONs with transferrin for targeting and imaging brain glial tumors in rat model. PLoS One 2012; 7(5)e37376
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037376] [PMID: 22615995]
[123]
Roberson ED, Mucke L. 100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer’s disease. Science 2006; 314(5800): 781-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1132813] [PMID: 17082448]
[124]
Huang H, Li P, Zhang M, et al. Graphene quantum dots for detecting monomeric amyloid peptides. Nanoscale 2017; 9(16): 5044-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6NR10017A] [PMID: 28397888]
[125]
Mars A, Hamami M, Bechnak L, Patra D, Raouafi N. Curcumin-graphene quantum dots for dual mode sensing platform: Electrochemical and fluorescence detection of APOe4, responsible of Alzheimer’s disease. Anal Chim Acta 2018; 1036: 141-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.06.075] [PMID: 30253824]
[126]
Tisch U, Schlesinger I, Ionescu R, et al. Detection of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease from exhaled breath using nanomaterial-based sensors. Nanomedicine (Lond) 2013; 8(1): 43-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm.12.105] [PMID: 23067372]
[127]
Liu JJ, Wang CY, Wang JG, Ruan HJ, Fan CY. Peripheral nerve regeneration using composite poly(lactic acid-caprolactone)/nerve growth factor conduits prepared by coaxial electrospinning. J Biomed Mater Res A 2011; 96(1): 13-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.32946] [PMID: 20949481]
[128]
Ali SS, Hardt JI, Quick KL, et al. A biologically effective fullerene (C60) derivative with superoxide dismutase mimetic properties. Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 37(8): 1191-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.07.002] [PMID: 15451059]
[129]
Das M, Patil S, Bhargava N, et al. Auto-catalytic ceria nanoparticles offer neuroprotection to adult rat spinal cord neurons. Biomaterials 2007; 28(10): 1918-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.11.036] [PMID: 17222903]
[130]
Pandey S, Gedda G, Thakur M, et al. Theranostic carbon dots ‘clathrate-like’ nanostructures for targeted photo-chemotherapy and bioimaging of cancer. J Ind Eng Chem 2017; 56: 62-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2017.06.008]
[131]
Pandey S, Mewada A, Thakur M, Tank A, Sharon M. Cysteamine hydrochloride protected carbon dots as a vehicle for the efficient release of the anti-schizophrenic drug haloperidol. RSC Advances 2013; 3(48): 26290.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3ra42139b]
[132]
Wang X, Li X, Mao Y, Wang D, Zhao Q, Wang S. Multi-stimuli responsive nanosystem modified by tumor-targeted carbon dots for chemophototherapy synergistic therapy. J Colloid Interface Sci 2019; 552: 639-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.05.085] [PMID: 31173992]
[133]
Zheng M, Liu S, Li J, et al. Integrating oxaliplatin with highly luminescent carbon dots: an unprecedented theranostic agent for personalized medicine. Adv Mater 2014; 26(21): 3554-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201306192] [PMID: 24634004]
[134]
Lai C, Hsiao Y, Peng Y, Chou P. Facile synthesis of highly emissive carbon dots from pyrolysis of glycerol; gram scale production of carbon dots/mSiO2 for cell imaging and drug release. J Mater Chem 2012; 22(29): 14403.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2jm32206d]
[135]
Wang K, Gao Z, Gao G, et al. Systematic safety evaluation on photoluminescent carbon dots. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013; 8(1): 122.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1556-276X-8-122] [PMID: 23497260]
[136]
Chiu SH, Gedda G, Girma WM, et al. Rapid fabrication of carbon quantum dots as multifunctional nanovehicles for dual-modal targeted imaging and chemotherapy. Acta Biomater 2016; 46: 151-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2016.09.027] [PMID: 27662808]
[137]
Liu C, Zhang P, Zhai X, et al. Nano-carrier for gene delivery and bioimaging based on carbon dots with PEI-passivation enhanced fluorescence. Biomaterials 2012; 33(13): 3604-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.01.052] [PMID: 22341214]
[138]
Kim J, Park J, Kim H, Singha K, Kim WJ. Transfection and intracellular trafficking properties of carbon dot-gold nanoparticle molecular assembly conjugated with PEI-pDNA. Biomaterials 2013; 34(29): 7168-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.05.072] [PMID: 23790437]
[139]
Zhang M, Zhao X, Fang Z, et al. Fabrication of HA/PEI-functionalized carbon dots for tumor targeting, intracellular imaging and gene delivery. RSC Advances 2017; 7(6): 3369-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6RA26048A]
[140]
Han J, Na K. Transfection of the TRAIL gene into human mesenchymal stem cells using biocompatible polyethyleneimine carbon dots for cancer gene therapy. J Ind Eng Chem 2019.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2019.02.015]
[141]
Thakur M, Pandey S, Mewada A, et al. Antibiotic Conjugated Fluorescent Carbon Dots as a Theranostic Agent for Controlled Drug Release. Bioimaging, and Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity 2019.
[142]
Ardekani SM, Dehghani A, Ye P, Nguyen KA, Gomes VG. Conjugated carbon quantum dots: Potent nano-antibiotic for intracellular pathogens. J Colloid Interface Sci 2019; 552: 378-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.05.067] [PMID: 31136856]
[143]
Dong X, Moyer MM, Yang F, Sun YP, Yang L. Carbon Dots’ Antiviral Functions Against Noroviruses. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 519.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00675-x] [PMID: 28364126]
[144]
Abu Rabe DI, Al Awak MM, Yang F, et al. The dominant role of surface functionalization in carbon dots’ photo-activated antibacterial activity. Int J Nanomedicine 2019; 14: 2655-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S200493] [PMID: 31118606]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 19
Year: 2020
Published on: 16 June, 2020
Page: [2207 - 2221]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200402102308
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 21
HTML: 4