Extremophile – An Adaptive Strategy for Extreme Conditions and Applications

Author(s): Isha Kohli, Naveen C. Joshi, Swati Mohapatra, Ajit Varma*.

Journal Name: Current Genomics

Volume 21 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Abstract:

The concurrence of microorganisms in niches that are hostile like extremes of temperature, pH, salt concentration and high pressure depends upon novel molecular mechanisms to enhance the stability of their proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and cell membranes. The structural, physiological and genomic features of extremophiles that make them capable of withstanding extremely selective environmental conditions are particularly fascinating. Highly stable enzymes exhibiting several industrial and biotechnological properties are being isolated and purified from these extremophiles. Successful gene cloning of the purified extremozymes in the mesophilic hosts has already been done. Various extremozymes such as amylase, lipase, xylanase, cellulase and protease from thermophiles, halothermophiles and psychrophiles are of industrial interests due to their enhanced stability at forbidding conditions. In this review, we made an attempt to point out the unique features of extremophiles, particularly thermophiles and psychrophiles, at the structural, genomic and proteomic levels, which allow for functionality at harsh conditions focusing on the temperature tolerance by them.

Keywords: Thermophiles, psychrophiles, extremozymes, adaptations, applications, extremophiles.

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VOLUME: 21
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Year: 2020
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