The Management of Acute Hemorrhoidal Disease

Author(s): Lucio Selvaggi, Guido Sciaudone*, Silvestro Canonico, Francesco Selvaggi, Gianluca Pellino

Journal Name: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials

Volume 16 , Issue 1 , 2021


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

The acute strangulation of internal hemorrhoids and the thrombosis of external hemorrhoids are both debilitating and painful conditions which require immediate treatment in order to minimize morbidity and reduce the length of inactivity. In selected cases, urgent surgical treatment, performed within 72 hours of presentation, prevents the negative economic and psychological effects of a prolonged recovery (which is often the case of conservative management), and limits the necessity for surgical intervention at a later date.

Keywords: Hemorrhoids, acute, crisis, strangulation, thrombosis, management.

[1]
Nicholls J, Glass R. Coloproctology. Nicholls J. Glass R. Hemorrhoids. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985; pp. 120-35.
[2]
Ganchrow MI, Bowman HE, Clark JF. Thrombosed hemorrhoids: A clinicopathologic study. Dis Colon Rectum 1971; 14(5): 331-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02553417] [PMID: 5096008]
[3]
Oh C. Acute thrombosed external hemorrhoids. Mt Sinai J Med 1989; 56(1): 30-2.
[PMID: 2784180]
[4]
Mann CV. Surgical Treatment of hemorrhoids. Pathophisiology of Hemorrhoidal disease. London: Springer 2002; pp. 15-7.
[5]
Cocorullo G, Tutino R, Falco N, et al. The non-surgical management for hemorrhoidal disease. A systematic review. G Chir 2017; 38(1): 5-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11138/gchir/2017.38.1.005] [PMID: 28460197]
[6]
Grace RH, Creed A. Prolasping thrombosed haemorrhoids: Outcome of conservative management. BMJ 1975; 3(5979): 354.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5979.354] [PMID: 1156754]
[7]
Gallo G, Martellucci J, Pellino G, et al. Consensus Statement of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR): Management and treatment of complete rectal prolapse. Tech Coloproctol 2018; 22(12): 919-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-018-1908-9] [PMID: 30554284]
[8]
Cook TA, Humphreys MM, McC Mortensen NJ. Oral nifedipine reduces resting anal pressure and heals chronic anal fissure. Br J Surg 1999; 86(10): 1269-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2168.1999.01292.x] [PMID: 10540130]
[9]
Cengiz TB, Gorgun E. Hemorrhoids: A range of treatments. Cleve Clin J Med 2019; 86(9): 612-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.86a.18079] [PMID: 31498764]
[10]
Tinckler LF, Baratham G. Immediate hemorrhoidectomy for prolapsed piles. Lancet 1964; 2(7370): 1145-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(64)92667-4] [PMID: 14213571]
[11]
Howard PM, Pingree JH. Immediate radical surgery for hemorrhoidal disease with acute extensive thrombosis. Am J Surg 1968; 116(5): 777-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9610(68)90367-X] [PMID: 5685830]
[12]
Hansen JB, Jorgensen SJ. Radical emergency operation for prolapsed and strangulated haemorrhoids. Acta Chir Scand 1975; 141(8): 810-2.
[PMID: 1082704]
[13]
Smith M. Early operation for acute haemorrhoids. Br J Surg 1967; 54(2): 141-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800540214] [PMID: 6016766]
[14]
Mazier WP. Emergency hemorrhoidectomy--a worthwhile procedure. Dis Colon Rectum 1973; 16(3): 200-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02600966] [PMID: 4574072]
[15]
Barrios G, Khubchandani M. Urgent hemorrhoidectomy for hemorrhoidal thrombosis. Dis Colon Rectum 1979; 22(3): 159-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02586807] [PMID: 446247]
[16]
Eu KW, Seow-Choen F, Goh HS. Comparison of emergency and elective haemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg 1994; 81(2): 308-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800810255] [PMID: 8156371]
[17]
Ceulemans R, Creve U, Van Hee R, Martens C, Wuyts FL. Benefit of emergency haemorrhoidectomy: a comparison with results after elective operations. Eur J Surg 2000; 166(10): 808-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/110241500447452] [PMID: 11071169]
[18]
Pattana-arun J, Wesarachawit W, Tantiphlachiva K, Atithansakul P, Sahakitrungruang C, Rojanasakul A. A comparison of early postoperative results between urgent closed hemorrhoidectomy for prolapsed thrombosed hemorrhoids and elective closed hemorrhoidectomy. J Med Assoc Thai 2009; 92(12): 1610-5.
[PMID: 20043562]
[19]
Allan A, Samad AJ, Mellon A, Marshall T. Prospective randomised study of urgent haemorrhoidectomy compared with non-operative treatment in the management of prolapsed thrombosed internal haemorrhoids. Colorectal Dis 2006; 8(1): 41-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2005.00910.x] [PMID: 16519637]
[20]
Heald RJ, Gudgeon AM. Limited haemorrhoidectomy in the treatment of acute strangulated haemorrhoids. Br J Surg 1986; 73(12): 1002.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800731219] [PMID: 3790941]
[21]
Brown SR, Ballan K, Ho E, Ho Fams YH, Seow-Choen F. Stapled mucosectomy for acute thrombosed circumferentially prolapsed piles: a prospective randomized comparison with conventional haemorrhoidectomy. Colorectal Dis 2001; 3(3): 175-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-1318.2001.00224.x] [PMID: 12790985]
[22]
Kang JC, Chung MH, Chao PC, Lee CC, Hsiao CW, Jao SW. Emergency stapled haemorrhoidectomy for haemorrhoidal crisis. Br J Surg 2005; 92(8): 1014-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.4883] [PMID: 15997448]
[23]
Wong JC, Chung CC, Yau KK, et al. Stapled technique for acute thrombosed hemorrhoids: A randomized, controlled trial with long-term results. Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51(4): 397-403.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10350-007-9085-3] [PMID: 18097723]
[24]
Pescatori M, Gagliardi G. Postoperative complications after procedure for prolapsed hemorrhoids (PPH) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) procedures. Tech Coloproctol 2008; 12(1): 7-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-008-0391-0] [PMID: 18512007]
[25]
Sciaudone G, Di Stazio C, Guadagni I, Selvaggi F. Rectal diverticulum: A new complication of STARR procedure for obstructed defecation. Tech Coloproctol 2008; 12(1): 61-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-008-0389-z] [PMID: 18512015]
[26]
Selvaggi F, Pellino G, Sciaudone G. Surgical treatment of recurrent prolapse after stapled haemorrhoidopexy. Tech Coloproctol 2014; 18(9): 847-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-014-1180-6] [PMID: 24957359]
[27]
Sammarco G, Trompetto M, Gallo G. Thrombosed External Haemorrhoids: A Clinician’s Dilemma. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2019; 14(4): 232-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887114666190927163646] [PMID: 31560294]
[28]
Hardy A, Cohen CRG. The acute management of haemorrhoids. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2014; 96(7): 508-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1308/003588414X13946184900967] [PMID: 25245728]
[29]
Greenspon J, Williams SB, Young HA, Orkin BA. Thrombosed external hemorrhoids: Outcome after conservative or surgical management. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47(9): 1493-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-0607-y] [PMID: 15486746]
[30]
Jongen J, Bach S, Stübinger SH, Bock JU. Excision of thrombosed external hemorrhoid under local anesthesia: A retrospective evaluation of 340 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2003; 46(9): 1226-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-6719-6] [PMID: 12972967]
[31]
Falco N, Tutino R, Fontana T, et al. Outpatient management of proctologic disease. Which techniques for local anesthesia? The experience of a single center. G Chir 2019; 40(3): 182-7.
[PMID: 31484006]
[32]
Rivadeneira DE, Steele SR, Ternent C, Chalasani S, Buie WD, Rafferty JL. Practice parameters for the management of hemorrhoids (revised 2010). Dis Colon Rectum 2011; 54(9): 1059-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0b013e318225513d] [PMID: 21825884]
[33]
Selvaggi F, Pellino G, Sciaudone G, Candilio G, Canonico S. Development and validation of a practical score to predict pain after excisional hemorrhoidectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis 2014; 29(11): 1401-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-014-1999-3] [PMID: 25155619]
[34]
Hoff SD, Bailey HR, Butts DR, et al. Ambulatory surgical hemorrhoidectomy--a solution to postoperative urinary retention? Dis Colon Rectum 1994; 37(12): 1242-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02257789] [PMID: 7995151]
[35]
Zaheer S, Reilly WT, Pemberton JH, Ilstrup D. Urinary retention after operations for benign anorectal diseases. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41(6): 696-704.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02236255] [PMID: 9645737]
[36]
Gençosmanoğlu R, Sad O, Koç D, Inceoğlu R. Hemorrhoidectomy: open or closed technique? A prospective, randomized clinical trial. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45(1): 70-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-6116-1] [PMID: 11786767]
[37]
Chen HH, Wang JY, Changchien CR, et al. Risk factors associated with posthemorrhoidectomy secondary hemorrhage: A single-institution prospective study of 4,880 consecutive closed hemorrhoidectomies. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45(8): 1096-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10350-004-6366-y] [PMID: 12195196]
[38]
Carapeti EA, Kamm MA, McDonald PJ, Chadwick SJ, Phillips RK. Randomized trial of open versus closed day-case haemorrhoidectomy. Br J Surg 1999; 86(5): 612-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2168.1999.01127.x] [PMID: 10361179]
[39]
Goligher JC. Surgery of the Anus, Rectum and Colon.Goligher JC. 5th ed. London: BalliereTindall 1984; p. 98.
[40]
Parikh SR, Molinelli B, Dailey TH. Liver abscess after hemorrhoidectomy. Report of two cases. Dis Colon Rectum 1994; 37(2): 185-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02047546] [PMID: 8306843]
[41]
Lal D, Levitan R. Bacteremia following proctoscopic biopsy of a rectal polyp. Arch Intern Med 1972; 130(1): 127-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1972.03650010111022] [PMID: 5035976]
[42]
Selvaggi F, Scotto di Carlo E, Silvestri A. Prospective randomized study of radical versus four piles haemorrhoidectomy for symptomatic large circumferential prolapsed piles. Br J Surg 1995; 82(10): 1433.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800821045] [PMID: 7489186]
[43]
Saleeby RG Jr, Rosen L, Stasik JJ, Riether RD, Sheets J, Khubchandani IT. Hemorrhoidectomy during pregnancy: risk or relief? Dis Colon Rectum 1991; 34(3): 260-1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02090166] [PMID: 1999133]
[44]
Jeffery PJ, Parks AG, Ritchie JK. Treatment of haemorrhoids in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet 1977; 1(8021): 1084-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(77)92337-6] [PMID: 68184]
[45]
Cihan A, Menteş BB, Sucak G, Karamercan A, Naznedar R, Ferahköşe Z. Fournier’s gangrene after hemorrhoidectomy: association with drug-induced agranulocytosis. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 1999; 42(12): 1644-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02236224] [PMID: 10613488]
[46]
Anderson J, Steger A. Fatal meningitis complicating cryosurgery for haemorrhoids. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288(6420): 826.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.288.6420.826] [PMID: 6423099]
[47]
O’Hara VS. Fatal clostridial infection following hemorrhoidal banding. Dis Colon Rectum 1980; 23(8): 570-1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02988999] [PMID: 7460695]
[48]
Kriss BD, Porter JA, Slezak FA. Retroperitoneal air after routine hemorrhoidectomy. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 1990; 33(11): 971-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02139108] [PMID: 2226086]
[49]
Buchmann P, Seefeld U. Rubber band ligation for piles can be disastrous in HIV-positive patients. Int J Colorectal Dis 1989; 4(1): 57-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01648552] [PMID: 2708884]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 30 March, 2020
Page: [91 - 95]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1574887115666200330162537
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 24
HTML: 2