This review focuses on the two-century-old concept of proton hopping. Introduced in
1806 by Grotthuss, it has evolved into an explanation of great diversity in describing many functions
in living systems. It is a process involving water, which expands on the belief that life exists
only in the presence of water. This review describes the mechanism of the process as it carries information
through the water. A focus is initially made on the process of water in the nerve systems.
The nature of the process in these systems is described as the passage of proton hopping in living
systems. In drug-receptor encounters, proton hopping is initiated, carrying specific information
from these specialized encounters. The review continues with an explanation of sleep, arising from
an alteration in proton hopping. A similar phenomenon of the effect of general anesthetic agents is
described, as they interfere with by proton hopping. Finally, memory functions are addressed in the
realm of events carried by proton hopping.
Keywords: Proton hopping, living systems, drug-receptor, water, anesthetic, agents, molecular interaction.
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