Metabolic Adaptations to Pregnancy in Healthy and Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies: The Pancreas - Placenta Axis

Author(s): Sandra K. Szlapinski, David J. Hill*

Journal Name: Current Vascular Pharmacology

Volume 19 , Issue 2 , 2021


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Abstract:

Normal pregnancy is associated with increased insulin resistance as a metabolic adaptation to the nutritional demands of the placenta and fetus, and this is amplified in obese mothers. Insulin resistance is normally compensated for by an adaptive increase in pancreatic β-cell mass together with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. Placentally-derived hormones and growth factors are central to the altered pancreatic morphology and function. A failure of β-cells to undergo adaptive change after the first trimester has been linked with gestational diabetes. In the pregnant mouse, an increase in β-cell replication contributes to a 2-3-fold increase in mass peaking in late gestation, depending on the proliferation of existing β-cells, the differentiation of resident progenitor β-cells, or islet cell transdifferentiation. Using mouse models and human studies placenta- and islet of Langerhans-derived molecules have been identified that are likely to contribute to the metabolic adaptations to pregnancy and whose physiology is altered in the obese, glucose-intolerant mother. Maternal obesity during pregnancy can create a pro-inflammatory environment that can disrupt the response of the β-cells to the endocrine signals of pregnancy and limit the adaptive changes in β-cell mass and function, resulting in an increased risk of gestational diabetes.

Keywords: β-cell, pancreas, placenta, placental lactogen, proliferation, apelin, kisspeptin, gestational diabetes.

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VOLUME: 19
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Year: 2021
Published on: 20 March, 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1570161118666200320111209
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