Background: In recent years, the occurrence and fate of environmental pollutants has
been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. A survey documented a
wide variety of these pollutants, which are often detected in our environment and these are a major
cause of shortened life spans and global warming. These pollutants include toxic metal, pesticides,
fertilizers, drugs, and dyes released into the soil and major water bodies. The presence of these contaminants
causes major disturbance in the balance of the eco-system. To tackle these issues, many
technological improvements are made to detect minute contaminations. The latest issue being answered
by scientists is the use of green nanomaterials as sensors which are economical, instant and
give much better results at low concentrations and can be used for the field measurements resulting
in no dangerous by-product that could lead to more environmental contamination. Nanomaterials are
known for their wide bandgap, enhanced physical, and optical properties with the option of tuneability
as per need, by optimizing certain parameters. They are proved to be a good choice for analytical/
optical sensors with high sensitivity.
Objective: This review holds information about multiple methods that use green nanomaterials for
the analytical assessment of environmental pollutants. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and electrochemical
analysis using green and reproducible nanomaterials are the major focus of this review article. To
date, there are a number of spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods available that have been
used for the detection of environmental pollutants such as toxic metals, pesticides, and dyes.
Conclusion: The use of nanomaterials can drastically change the detection limits due to having a
large surface area, strong catalytic properties, and tunable possibility. With the use of nanomaterials,
lower than the marked limit of detection and limit of quantification were seen when compared with
previously reported work. The used nanomaterials could be washed, dried, and reused, which makes
the methods more proficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly.