Nanomedicine has revolutionized the field of cancer detection and treatment by enabling the delivery
of imaging agents and therapeutics into cancer cells. Cancer diagnostic and therapeutic agents can be either encapsulated
or conjugated to nanosystems and accessed to the tumor environment through the passive targeting
approach (EPR effect) of the designed nanomedicine. It may also actively target the tumor exploiting conjugation
of targeting moiety (like antibody, peptides, vitamins, and hormones) to the surface of the nanoparticulate system.
Different diagnostic agents (like contrast agents, radionuclide probes and fluorescent dyes) are conjugated with
the multifunctional nanoparticulate system to achieve simultaneous cancer detection along with targeted therapy.
Nowadays targeted drug delivery, as well as the early cancer diagnosis is a key research area where nanomedicine
is playing a crucial role. This review encompasses the significant recent advancements in drug delivery as well as
molecular imaging and diagnosis of cancer exploiting polymer-based, lipid-based and inorganic nanoparticulate