In the era of precision medicine, establishing a patient-derived cell model is crucial, whether in vitro or
in vivo. Compared to the traditional cell lines, patient-derived primary cells represent precise genetic features
from specific patients, but poor proliferative activity of human primary cells restricts their popular application.
Conditional reprogramming (CR) is a new cell culture technique to achieve rapid growth of patient-derived cells
in vitro, making it possible to identify the individual difference and screen drugs sensitivity. In this review, we
will summarize the application and limitation of CR in tumor and inflammatory-related diseases, indicating the
prospect of this technique for preclinical research.