Background: Dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease that is affecting up to
25% of children and 1%-3% of adults worldwide. The paucity of the exact cure for dermatitis and
untoward side effects of topical immunosuppressive steroids, has resulted in a great need for making
use of complementary medicine to treat dermatitis.
Objective: The present research work involved the development of Berberine chloride dihydrate
(BCD) enthused nanovesicles i.e. ethosomes for the management of dermatitis.
Methods: Ethosomes were prepared by a slight modification of cold process using varying concentrations
of SPC (1-3%) and ethanol (10-40%) Optimized batch BCD 12 was further added to
Carbopol 934P for gel formation. GEL BCD 12 was subjected to “anti-bacterial, dermatitis, and
skin irritation study.
Results: The vesicles were in size range 142.42-398.31 nm, while the polydispersity index (PDI)
ranges from 0.114-1.56, and for zeta potential, it was from-18.8 to -39.4. Entrapment efficiency
was from 46.05-88.79%. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed the penetration depth of
rhodamine enthused ethosome across rat skin up to 110 μm, which was significantly higher than
rhodamine solution (10 μm). In the anti-bacterial study, BCD loaded ethosomal gel (EG) showed
maximum zone of inhibition of 18.5 mm against E. coli, 14.5 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(P. aeruginosa) and 23.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In dinitrochlorobenzene
(DNCB) induced mice dermatitis model histopathology study showed marked decrease in the
amount of inflammatory cell nucleus in mice treated with BCD loaded ethosomal gel followed by
56% and 50% increase in ear swelling and ear mass respectively in morphology study. The conventional
marketed formulation showed a nominal decrease in epidermal thickness, a 66.67% increase
in ear thickness, and 63.64% increase in ear mass. Further Primary irritation index was less
than 0.4 indicating negligible irritation in all the groups.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethosomal gel is not only an efficient carrier for BCD but
also proves its potential for the management of dermatitis.