Background: Complicated intra-abdominal infections are still associated with a high risk of
an unfavorable outcome. Despite the equal treatment, the mortality rates in some patients’ populations
remain significant, especially when the impaired immune response is present.
Aim: The object of this research is to analyze the impact of pro-inflammatory neutrophil CD64 and
anti-inflammatory monocyte HLA-DR on the final outcome.
Methods: We have searched in the PubMed database, the literature relating the prognostic value of two
biomarkers - nCD64 and mHLA-DR in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections and/or
Results: Eighteen original studies with 2960 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The data about
nCD64 that we found was contradictory, whereas low mHLA-DR expression showed good prognostic
Conclusion: Our review showed heterogeneous data about nCD64 survival prediction. Further investigations
with surgical patients exclusively are needed to evaluate its prognostic value in cIAIs. However,
we observed a good prognostic performance of low mHLA-DR expression. After a validation in
larger multicentre studies, mHLA-DR could be used as promising prognostic biomarker in cIAIs.