Recently, a significant number of breast cancer (BC) patients have been diagnosed at an
early stage. It is therefore critical to accurately predict the risk of recurrence and distant metastasis for
better management of BC in this setting. Clinicopathologic patterns, particularly lymph node status,
tumor size, and hormonal receptor status are routinely used to identify women at increased risk of recurrence.
However, these factors have limitations regarding their predictive ability for late metastasis
risk in patients with early BC. Emerging molecular signatures using gene expression-based approaches
have improved the prognostic and predictive accuracy for this indication. However, the use of their
based-scores for risk assessment has provided contradictory findings. Therefore, developing and using
newly emerged alternative predictive and prognostic biomarkers for identifying patients at high- and
low-risk is of great importance. The present review discusses some serum biomarkers and multigene
profiling scores for predicting late recurrence and distant metastasis in early-stage BC based on recently
published studies and clinical trials.
Keywords: Early breast cancer, late recurrence, distant metastasis, predictive biomarkers.
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