Stem cells are the undifferentiated cells in the body that possess the ability to differentiate
and give rise to any type of cells in the body. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in
therapies involving stem cells as different treatment methods got developed. Depending on the source,
there are two major kinds of stem cells, embryonic and adult stem cells. The former type is found in
the embryo at the different developmental stages before the implantation and excels the latter owing to
pluripotency. On the premise of the attributes of stem cells, they are touted as the "panacea for all ills"
and are extensively sought for their potential therapeutic roles. There are a lot of robust pieces of evidence
that have proved to cure the different ailments in the body like Huntington disease, Parkinson's
disease, and Spinal cord injury with stem cell therapy but associated with adverse effects like immune
rejection and teratoma formation. In this regard, the pre-morula (isolated at an early pre-morula stage)
stem cells (PMSCs) are one of its kind of embryonic stem cells that are devoid of the aforementioned
adverse effects. Taking the beneficial factor into account, they are being used for the treatment of disorders
like Cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disorder, Aplastic anemia, Multiple sclerosis and many more.
However, it is still illegal to use stem cells in the abovementioned disorders. This review encompasses
different stem cells and emphasizes on PMSCs for their uniqueness in therapy as no other previously
published literature reviews have taken these into consideration. Later in the review, current regulatory
aspects related to stem cells are also considered.
Keywords: Human embryonic stem cell, morula, parkinson's disease, blastocyst inner cell mass, diabetes mellitus, type 2, transcription
factors, cell differentiation, teratoma.
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