Improvement in Ethanol Yield from Lignocellulo-Starch Biomass using Saccharomyces cerevisiae alone or its Co-culture with Scheffersomyces stipitis

Author(s): Madhanamohanan G. Mithra, Gouri Padmaja*

Journal Name: Current Biotechnology

Volume 9 , Issue 1 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Literature on ethanol production from Lignocellulo-Starch Biomass (LCSB) containing starch besides cellulose and hemicellulose, is scanty. Fed-Batch Separate Hydrolysis And Fermentation (F-SHF) was earlier found more beneficial than Fed-Batch Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (F-SSF).

Objective: The study aimed at modification of the saccharification and fermentation strategies by including a prehydrolysis step prior to the SSF and compared the ethanol yields with co-culture fermentation using hexose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and pentose-fermenting Scheffersomyces stipitis.

Methods: Fed-batch hybrid-SSF and Fed-Batch Separate Hydrolysis and Co-culture Fermentation (F-SHCF) in improving ethanol yield from Steam (ST) or Dilute Sulfuric Acid (DSA) pretreated LCSBs (peels of root and vegetable crops) were studied.

Results: There was a progressive build-up of ethanol during F-HSSF up to 72h and further production up to 120h was negligible, with no difference among pretreatments. Despite very high ethanol production in the initial 24h of fermentation by S.cerevisiae under F-SHCF, the further increase was negligible. A rapid hike in ethanol production was observed when S. stipitis was also supplemented because of xylose conversion to ethanol.

Conclusion: While ST gave higher ethanol (296-323 ml/kg) than DSA under F-HSSF, the latter was advantageous under F-SHCF for certain residues. Prehydrolysis (24h; 50°C) enhanced initial sugar levels favouring fast fermentation and subsequent saccharification and fermentation occurred concurrently at 37°C for 120h, thus leading to energy saving and hence F-HSSF was advantageous. Owing to the low hemicellulose content in LCSBs, the relative advantage of co-culture fermentation over monoculture fermentation was not significant.

Keywords: Lignocellulo-starch biomass, Ethanol, Fed-batch, Hybrid-SSF, Co-culture, F-SHF.

[1]
Sarkar N, Ghosh SK, Bannerjee S, Aikat K. Bioethanol production from agricultural wastes: An overview. Renew Energy 2012; 37: 19-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.06.045]
[2]
Zhang Y. Understanding the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy Euro J Sustain Develop 2018; 2: 09.
[3]
Farrell AE, Plevin RJ, Turner BT, Jones AD, O’Hare M, Kammen DM. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 2006; 311(5760): 506-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1121416] [PMID: 16439656]
[4]
Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve ethanol and biogas production: a review. Int J Mol Sci 2008; 9(9): 1621-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms9091621] [PMID: 19325822]
[5]
Limayem A, Ricke SC. Lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production: Current perspectives, potential issues and future prospects. Pror Energy Combust Sci 2012; 38: 449-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2012.03.002]
[6]
Sun RC, Tomkinson RC. Characterization of hemicelluloses obtained by classical and ultrasonically assisted extractions from wheat straw. Carbohydr Polym 2002; 50: 263-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00037-1]
[7]
Wyman CE. Biomass ethanol: Technical progress, opportunities and commercial challenges. Annu Rev Energy Environ 1999; 24: 189-226.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.24.1.189]
[8]
Alvira P, Tomás-Pejó E, Ballesteros M, Negro MJ. Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: A review. Bioresour Technol 2010; 101(13): 4851-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.11.093] [PMID: 20042329]
[9]
Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, et al. Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 2005; 96(6): 673-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.06.025] [PMID: 15588770]
[10]
Yang B, Wyman CE. Pretreatment: The key to unlocking low cost cellulosic ethanol. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 2008; 2: 26-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bbb.49]
[11]
Galbe M, Zacchi G. A review of the production of ethanol from softwood. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2002; 59(6): 618-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-002-1058-9] [PMID: 12226717]
[12]
Hodge DB, Karim MN, Schell DJ, McMillan JD. Soluble and insoluble solids contributions to high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(18): 8940-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.05.015] [PMID: 18585030]
[13]
Olofsson K, Bertilsson M, Lidén G. A short review on SSF - an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Biotechnol Biofuels 2008; 1(1): 7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-1-7] [PMID: 18471273]
[14]
Zacchi G, Axelsson A. Economic evaluation of preconcentration in production of ethanol from dilute sugar solutions. Biotechnol Bioeng 1989; 34(2): 223-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.260340211] [PMID: 18588096]
[15]
Gao Y, Xu J, Yuan Z, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Liang C. Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production. Bioresour Technol 2014; 167: 41-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.05.034] [PMID: 24968110]
[16]
Wanderley MCA, Martín C, Rocha GJ, Gouveia ER. Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 2013; 128: 448-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.131] [PMID: 23201527]
[17]
Zhang T, Zhu MJ. Enhanced bioethanol production by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation at high solid loading of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide sequentially pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Bioresour Technol 2017; 229: 204-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.01.028] [PMID: 28119226]
[18]
Singh A, Kuila A, Adak S, Bishai M, Banerjee R. Utilization of vegetable wastes for bioenergy generation. Agric Res 2012; 1: 213-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40003-012-0030-x]
[19]
Mithra MG, Padmaja G. Compositional profile and ultrastructure of steam and dilute sulfuric acid pretreated root and vegetable processing residues. Curr Biotechnol 2018; 7(4): 288-301.
[20]
Mithra MG, Padmaja G. Comparative alterations in the compositional profile of selected root and vegetable peels subjected to three pretreatments for enhanced saccharification. Inter J Env Agri Biotechnol 2017; 1732-44.
[21]
Mithra MG, Padmaja G. Strategies for enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass: Effect of enzyme dosage and detoxification chemicals. Heliyon 2017; 3(8) e00384 b.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00384] [PMID: 28831456]
[22]
Mithra MG, Sreekumar J, Padmaja G. Binary- and triple-enzyme cocktails and their application mode affect fermentable sugar release from pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass. Biomass Conv Biorefin 2018; 8: 97-111.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S13399-017-6237-y]
[23]
Mithra MG, Padmaja G. Phenolic inhibitors of saccharification and fermentation in lignocellulo-starch prehydrolysates and comparative efficacy of detoxification treatments. J Biomass Biofuel 2016b; 3
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11159/jbb.2016.001]
[24]
Mithra MG, Sajeev MS, Padmaja G. Comparison of SHF and SSF processes under fed batch mode on ethanol production from pretreated vegetable processing residues. Eur J Sust Dev Res 2018; 2
[http://dx.doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3950]
[25]
Mithra MG, Jeeva ML, Sajeev MS, Padmaja G. Comparison of ethanol yield from pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass under fed-batch SHF or SSF modes. Heliyon 2018; 4(10)e00885
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00885] [PMID: 30417150]
[26]
Mithra MG, Sajeev MS, Padmaja G. Fed-batch saccharification as strategy towards reducing enzyme dosage and enhancing fermentable sugar yield from pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass. Waste Biomass Valor 2018.
[27]
Boonsawang P, Subkaree Y, Srinorakutara T. Ethanol production from palm pressed fiber by prehydrolysis prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Biomass Bioenergy 2012; 40: 127-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.02.009]
[28]
Cassells B, Karhumaa K, Sànchez I Nogué V, Lidén G. Hybrid SSF/SHF processing of SO2 pretreated wheat straw-tuning co-fermentation by yeast inoculum size and hydrolysis time. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2017; 181(2): 536-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-016-2229-y] [PMID: 27631121]
[29]
Oh KK, Kim SW, Jeong YS, Hong SI. Bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2000; 89(1): 15-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/ABAB:89:1:15] [PMID: 11069005]
[30]
Öhgren K, Vehmaanpera J, Siika-Aho M, Galbe M. Viikari l, Zacchi G. High temperature enzymatic prehydrolysis prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam pretreated corn stover for ethanol production. Enzyme Microb Technol 2007; 40: 607-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.05.014]
[31]
Bertilsson M, Olofsson K, Lidén G. Prefermentation improves xylose utilization in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated spruce. Biotechnol Biofuels 2009; 2(1): 8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-2-8] [PMID: 19356227]
[32]
Xiros C, Olsson L. Comparison of strategies to overcome the inhibitory effects in high gravity fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Biomass Bioenergy 2014; 65(79): 90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.03.060]
[33]
Erdei B, Galbe M, Zacchi G. Simultaneous saccharification andco-fermentation of whole wheat in integrated ethanol production. Biomass Bioenergy 2013; 56: 506-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.05.032]
[34]
Lin Y, Tanaka S. Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006; 69(6): 627-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-0229-x] [PMID: 16331454]
[35]
Olsson L, Hahn-Hägerdal B. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production. Enzyme Microb Technol 1996; 18: 312-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(95)00157-3]
[36]
Chen Y. Development and application of co-culture for ethanol production by co-fermentation of glucose and xylose: a systematic review. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2011; 38(5): 581-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-010-0894-3] [PMID: 21104106]
[37]
Gupta R, Sharma KK, Kuhad RC. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) of Prosopis juliflora, a woody substrate, for the production of cellulosic ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis-NCIM 3498. Bioresour Technol 2009; 100(3): 1214-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.08.033] [PMID: 18835157]
[38]
Karagöz P, Özkan M. Ethanol production from wheat straw by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis co-culture in batch and continuous system. Bioresour Technol 2014; 158: 286-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.022] [PMID: 24614063]
[39]
Yadav KS, Naseeruddin S, Prashanthi GS, Sateesh L, Rao LV. Bioethanol fermentation of concentrated rice straw hydrolysate using co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. Bioresour Technol 2011; 102(11): 6473-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.019] [PMID: 21470850]
[40]
Gírio FM, Fonseca C, Carvalheiro F, Duarte LC, Marques S, Bogel-Łukasik R. Hemicelluloses for fuel ethanol: A review. Bioresour Technol 2010; 101(13): 4775-800.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.01.088] [PMID: 20171088]
[41]
Hahn-Hägerdal B, Jeppsson H, Skoog K, Prior BA. Biochemistry and physiology of xylose fermentation by yeasts. Enzyme Microb Technol 1994; 16: 933-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)90002-7]
[42]
Cardona CA, Sánchez OJ. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98(12): 2415-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.01.002] [PMID: 17336061]
[43]
Divya Nair MP, Padmaja G, Moorthy SN. Biodegradation of cassava starch factory residue using a combination of cellulases, xylanases and hemicellulases. Biomass Bioenergy 2011; 35: 1211-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.12.009]
[44]
Nelson N. A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for determination of glucose. J Biol Chem 1944; 153: 375-80.
[45]
Caputi A Jr, Ueda M, Brown T. Spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in wine. Am J Enol Vitic 1968; 19: 160-5.
[46]
Barcelos CA, Maeda RN, Betancur GJV, Pereira N Jr. Ethanol production from sorghum grains [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]: Evaluation of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the hydrolysate fermentability. Braz J of Chem Eng 2011; 28: 597-604.
[47]
Pereira SC, Maehara L, Machado CMM, Farinas CS. 2G ethanol from the whole sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass. Biotechnol Biofuels 2015; 8: 44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-015-0224-0] [PMID: 25774217]
[48]
Pooja NS, Sajeev MS, Jeeva ML, Padmaja G. Bioethanol production from microwave-assisted acid or alkali-pretreated agricultural residues of cassava using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). 3Biotech 2018; 8(69)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1095-4]
[49]
Qin W. High consistency enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses MSc thesis 2010; 140
[50]
SAS. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc. 2010.
[51]
Li X, Lu J, Zhao J, Qu Y. Characteristics of corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production. PLoS One 2014; 9(4) e95455
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095455] [PMID: 24763192]
[52]
Gladis A, Bondesson PM, Galbe M, Zacchi G. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings. Energy Sci Eng 2015; 3: 481-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ese3.83]
[53]
Hoyer K, Galbe M, Zacchi G. The effect of prehydrolysis and improved mixing on high-solids batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of spruce to ethanol. Process Biochem 2013; 48: 289-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2012.12.020]
[54]
Alshammari TM, Al-Hassan AA, Hadda TB, Aljofan M. Comparison of different serum sample extraction methods and their suitability for mass spectrometry analysis. Saudi Pharm J 2015; 23(6): 689-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2015.01.023] [PMID: 26702265]
[55]
Stenberg K, Bollók M, Réczey K, Galbe M, Zacchi G. Effect of substrate and cellulase concentration on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-pretreated softwood for ethanol production. Biotechnol Bioeng 2000; 68(2): 204-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(20000420)68:2<204::AID-BIT9>3.0.CO;2-4] [PMID: 10712736]
[56]
Grootjen DRJ. van der Lans. RGJM, Luyben KCAM. Effects of the aeration rate on the fermentation of glucose and xylose by Pichia stipitis CBS 5773. Enzyme Microb Technol 1990; 12: 20-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(90)90174-O]
[57]
Papini M, Nookaew I, Uhlén M, Nielsen J. Scheffersomyces stipitis: a comparative systems biology study with the Crabtree positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microb Cell Fact 2012; 11: 136.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-11-136] [PMID: 23043429]
[58]
Delgenes JP, Moletta R, Navarro JM. Effects of lignocelluloses degradation products on ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Candida shehatae. Enzyme Microb Technol 1996; 19: 220-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(95)00237-5]
[59]
Agbogbo FK, Coward-Kelly G, Torry-Smith M, Wenger KS. Fermentation of glucose/xylose mixtures using P. stipitis. Process Biochem 2006; 41: 2333-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2006.05.004]
[60]
Agbogbo FK, Coward-Kelly G. Cellulosic ethanol production using the naturally occurring xylose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis. Biotechnol Lett 2008; 30(9): 1515-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-008-9728-z] [PMID: 18431677]
[61]
Alkasrawi M, Eriksson T, Börjesson J, et al. The effect of Tween-20 on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of softwood to ethanol. Enzyme Microb Technol 2003; 33: 71-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(03)00087-5]
[62]
Börjesson J, Peterson R, Tjerneld F. Enhanced enzymatic conversion of softwood lignocelluloses by poly (ethylene glycol) addition. Enzyme Microb Technol 2007; 40: 754-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.06.006]
[63]
Cavka A, Jönsson LJ. Detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates using sodium borohydride. Bioresour Technol 2013; 136: 368-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.014] [PMID: 23567704]
[64]
Eriksson T, Börjesson J, Tjerneld F. Mechanism of surfactant effect in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Enzyme Microb Technol 2002; 31: 353-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(02)00134-5]
[65]
Liu ZL, Slininger PJ, Gorsich SW. Enhanced biotransformation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural by newly developed ethanologenic yeast strains. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2005; 121-124: 451-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/ABAB:121:1-3:0451] [PMID: 15917621]
[66]
Tran AV, Chambers RP. Ethanol fermentation of red oak acid prehydrolysate by the yeast Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. Enzyme Microb Technol 1986; 8: 439-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(86)90154-7]
[67]
Liu ZL, Slininger PJ, Dien BS, Berhow MA, Kurtzman CP, Gorsich SW. Adaptive response of yeasts to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and new chemical evidence for HMF conversion to 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2004; 31(8): 345-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-004-0148-3] [PMID: 15338422]
[68]
From biomass to biofuels: A roadmap to the energy future, based on a workshop, Rockville. 7-9 Dec. Received. Revised 2005.


open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 9
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Published on: 11 March, 2020
Page: [57 - 76]
Pages: 20
DOI: 10.2174/2211550109666200311111119

Article Metrics

PDF: 18
HTML: 4
EPUB: 2