Background: The presence of pharmaceuticals (PACs) drugs in the environment and their
detection and quantification have emerged as one of the challenging issues for the scientific community.
Introduction: The gold standard, an anti-diabetic drug, Metformin has a strong potential to contaminate
the aquatic bodies, being a highly polar drug. Different analytical methods based on spectroscopic
evaluation or chromatographic techniques have been developed to find out the concentration
of drug/ their metabolites.
Methods: This review article discussed the chromatographic techniques for the analysis of Metformin
(in ng/L to μg/L) in aqueous samples, pharmaceutical drugs and biological fluids such as urine
and human plasma are High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Reverse-Phase High-
Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography
(HPTLC), Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography HILIC-MS/MS, Liquid Chromatographic-
tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS), Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Results: The relevance modifications of traditional HPLC methods for the separation of the mixture
of drugs with a focus on the lesser time, better resolution, sensitivity, symmetry of peaks, the limit of
detection and accuracy of the results have been envisaged through research findings. Hydrophilic interaction
liquid chromatography (HILIC)-tandem mass spectrometry method offered the possible solution
for highly polar drugs detection and quantification in effluent and surface water samples.
Conclusion: HPLC based analytical techniques offer the advantages viz. less time requirement, minimum
usage of organic solvents and better separation and quantification of Metformin. The futuristic
research approach lies in the development of newer extraction strategies, mobile phases, and adsorbent
materials for the HPLC based separations.