Background: Inflammatory bowel disease, including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are two
chronic and progressive disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Research on the molecular mechanisms of both
diseases has led to the introduction of targeted therapies which are able to selectively block the key inflammatory
Methods: Here, we discuss the current evidence about the mechanism of action with an up to date review of the
efficacy and safety of Janus kinase inhibitors in inflammatory bowel disease.
Results: Multiple small molecule drugs have been evaluated for their use in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s
disease. Janus kinase inhibitors represent the most important family of these drugs, as their particular mechanism of
action enables a simultaneous and effective blockade of multiple cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the
Conclusion: Janus kinase inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic strategy, especially in ulcerative colitis. More
data are still necessary regarding its efficacy and safety in clinical practice.