Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Anti-Cancer Therapies

Author(s): Milena Kostadinova*, Milena Mourdjeva

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Volume 15 , Issue 6 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer


Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are localized throughout the adult body as a small population in the stroma of the tissue concerned. In injury, tissue damage, or tumor formation, they are activated and leave their niche to migrate to the site of injury, where they release a plethora of growth factors, cytokines, and other bioactive molecules. With the accumulation of data about the interaction between MSCs and tumor cells, the dualistic role of MSCs remains unclear. However, a large number of studies have demonstrated the natural anti-tumor properties inherent in MSCs, so this is the basis for intensive research for new methods using MSCs as a tool to suppress cancer cell development. This review focuses specifically on advanced approaches in modifying MSCs to become a powerful, precision- targeted tool for killing cancer cells, but not normal healthy cells. Suppression of tumor growth by MSCs can be accomplished by inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, suppressing tumor angiogenesis, or blocking mechanisms mediating metastasis. In addition, the chemosensitivity of cancer cells may be increased so that the dose of the chemotherapeutic agent used could be significantly reduced.

Keywords: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, tumor cells, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, genetic modification, exosomes.

Owen M, Friedenstein AJ. Stromal stem cells: marrow-derived osteogenic precursors. Ciba Found Symp 1988; 136: 42-60.
[PMID: 3068016]
Zuk PA, Zhu M, Peter Ashjian DADU, Jerry I. Huang, Hiroshi Mizuno, Z. C. A., Fraser, J. K. & Prosper Benhaim, and M. H. H. Human adi-pose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Mol Biol Cell 2002; 13: 3915-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e02-02-0105] [PMID: 12475952]
Shi S, Gronthos S. Perivascular niche of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells in human bone marrow and dental pulp. J Bone Miner Res 2003; 18(4): 696-704.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.4.696] [PMID: 12674330]
Dimitrov R, Kyurkchiev D, Timeva T, et al. First-trimester human decidua contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells. Fertil Steril 2010; 93(1): 210-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.09.061] [PMID: 19006798]
Flores-Guzmán P, Flores-Figueroa E, Martínez-Jaramillo G, Mayani H. In vitro characterization of two lineage-negative CD34+ cell-enriched hematopoietic cell populations from human UC blood. Cytotherapy 2005; 7(4): 334-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14653240500238228] [PMID: 16162455]
Dominici M, Le Blanc K, Mueller I, et al. Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy 2006; 8(4): 315-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14653240600855905] [PMID: 16923606]
Ullah I, Subbarao RB, Rho GJ. Human mesenchymal stem cells - current trends and future prospective. Biosci Rep 2015; 35(2): 1-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20150025] [PMID: 25797907]
Kobolak J, Dinnyes A, Memic A, Khademhosseini A, Mobasheri A. Mesenchymal stem cells: Identification, phenotypic characterization, biological properties and potential for regenerative medicine through biomaterial micro-engineering of their niche. Methods 2016; 99: 62-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2015.09.016] [PMID: 26384580]
Tse WT, Pendleton JD, Beyer WM, Egalka MC, Guinan EC. Suppression of allogeneic T-cell proliferation by human marrow stromal cells: implications in transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 75(3): 389-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000045055.63901.A9] [PMID: 12589164]
Aggarwal S, Pittenger MF. Modulation of Immune Cell Responses by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. ASH Annu Meet Abstr 2004; 104: 1288.
Rasmusson I, Ringdén O, Sundberg B, Le Blanc K. Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit lymphocyte proliferation by mitogens and alloantigens by different mechanisms. Exp Cell Res 2005; 305(1): 33-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.12.013] [PMID: 15777785]
Corcione A, Benvenuto F, Ferretti E, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate B-cell functions. Blood 2006; 107(1): 367-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-07-2657] [PMID: 16141348]
Spaggiari GM, Capobianco A, Becchetti S, Mingari MC, Moretta L. Mesenchymal stem cell-natural killer cell interactions: evidence that activated NK cells are capable of killing MSCs, whereas MSCs can inhibit IL-2-induced NK-cell proliferation. Blood 2006; 107(4): 1484-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-07-2775] [PMID: 16239427]
Kidd S, Spaeth E, Dembinski JL, et al. Direct evidence of mesenchymal stem cell tropism for tumor and wounding microenvironments using in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Stem Cells 2009; 27(10): 2614-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.187] [PMID: 19650040]
Kilroy GE, Foster SJ, Wu X, et al. Cytokine profile of human adipose-derived stem cells: expression of angiogenic, hematopoietic, and pro-inflammatory factors. J Cell Physiol 2007; 212(3): 702-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.21068] [PMID: 17477371]
Boomsma RA, Geenen DL. Mesenchymal stem cells secrete multiple cytokines that promote angiogenesis and have contrasting effects on chemotaxis and apoptosis. PLoS One 2012; 7(4) e35685
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035685] [PMID: 22558198]
De Becker A, Riet IV. Homing and migration of mesenchymal stromal cells: How to improve the efficacy of cell therapy? World J Stem Cells 2016; 8(3): 73-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v8.i3.73] [PMID: 27022438]
Sohni A, Verfaillie CM. Mesenchymal stem cells migration homing and tracking. Stem Cells Int 2013; 2013 130763
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/130763] [PMID: 24194766]
Henschler R, Deak E, Seifried E. Homing of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Transfus Med Hemother 2008; 35(4): 306-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000143110] [PMID: 21512647]
Phinney DG, Prockop DJ. Concise review: mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells: the state of transdifferentiation and modes of tissue repair--current views. Stem Cells 2007; 25(11): 2896-902.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2007-0637] [PMID: 17901396]
Mukai T, Tojo A, Nagamura-Inoue T. Mesenchymal stromal cells as a potential therapeutic for neurological disorders. Regen Ther 2018; 9: 32-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reth.2018.08.001] [PMID: 30525073]
Schäfer M, Werner S. Cancer as an overhealing wound: An old hypothesis revisited. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2008; 9(8): 628-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrm2455] [PMID: 18628784]
Lazennec G, Richmond A. Chemokines and chemokine receptors: new insights into cancer-related inflammation. Trends Mol Med 2010; 16(3): 133-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2010.01.003] [PMID: 20163989]
Kolluri KK, Laurent GJ, Janes SM. Mesenchymal stem cells as vectors for lung cancer therapy. Respiration 2013; 85(6): 443-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000351284] [PMID: 23711430]
Spaeth E, Klopp A, Dembinski J, Andreeff M, Marini F. Inflammation and tumor microenvironments: defining the migratory itinerary of mesenchymal stem cells. Gene Ther 2008; 15(10): 730-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gt.2008.39] [PMID: 18401438]
Fierro FA, Sierralta WD, Epuñan MJ, Minguell JJ. Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: role in epithelial tumor cell determination. Clin Exp Metastasis 2004; 21(4): 313-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:CLIN.0000046130.79363.33] [PMID: 15554387]
Zhu W, Xu W, Jiang R, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow favor tumor cell growth in vivo. Exp Mol Pathol 2006; 80(3): 267-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2005.07.004] [PMID: 16214129]
Djouad F, Plence P, Bony C, et al. Immunosuppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells favors tumor growth in allogeneic animals. Blood 2003; 102(10): 3837-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2003-04-1193] [PMID: 12881305]
Martin FT, Dwyer RM, Kelly J, et al. Potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the breast tumour microenvironment: stimulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 124(2): 317-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-010-0734-1] [PMID: 20087650]
Goldstein RH, Reagan MR, Anderson K, Kaplan DL, Rosenblatt M. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs can home to orthotopic breast cancer tumors and promote bone metastasis. Cancer Res 2010; 70(24): 10044-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1254] [PMID: 21159629]
Spaeth E L, et al. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transition to Tumor-Associated Fibro-blasts Contributes to Fibrovascular Network Expansion and Tu-mor Progression 2009; 4
Bianchi G, Borgonovo G, Pistoia V, Raffaghello L. Immunosuppressive cells and tumour microenvironment: focus on mesenchymal stem cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells. Histol Histopathol 2011; 26(7): 941-51.
[PMID: 21630223]
Plumas J, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells induce apoptosis of activated T cells Leuk Off J Leuk Soc Am Leuk Res Fund, UK 2005 19: 1597- 604.
Voswinkel J, Francois S, Simon JM, et al. Use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in chronic inflammatory fistulizing and fibrotic diseases: a comprehensive review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2013; 45(2): 180-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12016-012-8347-6] [PMID: 23296948]
Rhee KJ, Lee JI, Eom YW. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated effects of tumor support or suppression. Int J Mol Sci 2015; 16(12): 30015-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226215] [PMID: 26694366]
Lingala S M, Ghany M G M. Mhs Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells: a review of clinical ap-plications and manufacturing practices 2016; 25: 289-313.
Shinagawa K, Kitadai Y, Tanaka M, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance growth and metastasis of colon cancer. Int J Cancer 2010; 127(10): 2323-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25440] [PMID: 20473928]
Chen D, Liu S, Ma H, et al. Paracrine factors from adipose-mesenchymal stem cells enhance metastatic capacity through Wnt signaling pathway in a colon cancer cell co-culture model. Cancer Cell Int 2015; 15: 42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-015-0198-9] [PMID: 26060426]
Karnoub AE, Dash AB, Vo AP, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells within tumour stroma promote breast cancer metastasis. Nature 2007; 449(7162): 557-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06188] [PMID: 17914389]
Rhodes LV, Muir SE, Elliott S, et al. Adult human mesenchymal stem cells enhance breast tumorigenesis and promote hormone independence. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010; 121(2): 293-300.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-009-0458-2] [PMID: 19597705]
Xu WT, Bian ZY, Fan QM, Li G, Tang TT. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) target osteosarcoma and promote its growth and pulmonary metastasis. Cancer Lett 2009; 281(1): 32-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2009.02.022] [PMID: 19342158]
Tsukamoto S, Honoki K, Fujii H, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells promote tumor engraftment and metastatic colonization in rat osteosarcoma model. Int J Oncol 2012; 40(1): 163-9.
[PMID: 21971610]
Zhou H-S, Su XF, Fu XL, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells promote pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells invasion by transforming growth factor-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Oncotarget 2016; 7(27): 41294-305.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9319] [PMID: 27191496]
Tian LL, Yue W, Zhu F, Li S, Li W. Human mesenchymal stem cells play a dual role on tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Physiol 2011; 226(7): 1860-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.22511] [PMID: 21442622]
Klopp AH, Gupta A, Spaeth E, Andreeff M, Marini F III. Concise review: Dissecting a discrepancy in the literature: do mesenchymal stem cells support or suppress tumor growth? Stem Cells 2011; 29(1): 11-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.559] [PMID: 21280155]
Khakoo AY, Pati S, Anderson SA, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells exert potent antitumorigenic effects in a model of Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Exp Med 2006; 203(5): 1235-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20051921] [PMID: 16636132]
Ramasamy R, Lam EW, Soeiro I, Tisato V, Bonnet D, Dazzi F. Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells: impact on in vivo tumor growth. Leukemia 2007; 21(2): 304-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.leu.2404489] [PMID: 17170725]
Qiao L, Xu Z-L, Zhao T-J, Ye L-H, Zhang X-D. Dkk-1 secreted by mesenchymal stem cells inhibits growth of breast cancer cells via depression of Wnt signalling. Cancer Lett 2008; 269(1): 67-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.04.032] [PMID: 18571836]
Qiao L, Xu Z, Zhao T, et al. Suppression of tumorigenesis by human mesenchymal stem cells in a hepatoma model. Cell Res 2008; 18(4): 500-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cr.2008.40] [PMID: 18364678]
Lu YR, Yuan Y, Wang XJ, et al. The growth inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cells on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther 2008; 7(2): 245-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cbt.7.2.5296] [PMID: 18059192]
Cousin B, Ravet E, Poglio S, et al. Adult stromal cells derived from human adipose tissue provoke pancreatic cancer cell death both in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One 2009; 4(7) e6278
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006278] [PMID: 19609435]
Zhu Y, Sun Z, Han Q, et al. Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit cancer cell proliferation by secreting DKK-1. Leukemia 2009; 23(5): 925-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/leu.2008.384] [PMID: 19148141]
Sun B, Roh KH, Park JR, et al. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse breast cancer metastasis model. Cytotherapy 2009; 11(3): 289-98.
Sarmadi VH, Tong CK, Vidyadaran S, Abdullah M, Seow HF, Ramasamy R. Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit proliferation of lymphoid origin haematopoietic tumour cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Med J Malaysia 2010; 65(3): 209-14.
[PMID: 21939170]
El-Haibi CP, Karnoub AE. Mesenchymal stem cells in the pathogenesis and therapy of breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2010; 15(4): 399-409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10911-010-9196-7] [PMID: 21170761]
Nakamizo A, Marini F, Amano T, et al. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of gliomas. Cancer Res 2005; 65(8): 3307-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1874] [PMID: 15833864]
Studeny M, Marini FC, Dembinski JL, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential precursors for tumor stroma and targeted-delivery vehicles for anticancer agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96(21): 1593-603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djh299] [PMID: 15523088]
Ahn Jo, Lee Hw, Seo Kw, Kang Sk, Ra Jc, Youn Hy. Anti-tumor effect of adipose tissue derived-mesenchymal stem cells expressing interferon-β and treatment with cisplatin in a xenograft mouse model for canine melanoma. PLoS One 2013; 8(9) e74897
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074897] [PMID: 24040358]
Chen X, Lin X, Zhao J, et al. A tumor-selective biotherapy with prolonged impact on established metastases based on cytokine gene-engineered MSCs. Mol Ther 2008; 16(4): 749-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2008.3] [PMID: 18362930]
LeBlanc HN, Ashkenazi A. Apo2L/TRAIL and its death and decoy receptors. Cell Death Differ 2003; 10(1): 66-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.cdd.4401187] [PMID: 12655296]
Riccioni R, Pasquini L, Mariani G, et al. TRAIL decoy receptors mediate resistance of acute myeloid leukemia cells to TRAIL. Haematologica 2005; 90(5): 612-24.
[PMID: 15921376]
Song JH, Tse MC, Bellail A, et al. Lipid rafts and nonrafts mediate tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand induced apoptotic and nonapoptotic signals in non small cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 2007; 67(14): 6946-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3896] [PMID: 17638906]
Wagner KW, Punnoose EA, Januario T, et al. Death-receptor O-glycosylation controls tumor-cell sensitivity to the proapoptotic ligand Apo2L/TRAIL. Nat Med 2007; 13(9): 1070-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1627] [PMID: 17767167]
Clancy L, Mruk K, Archer K, et al. Preligand assembly domain-mediated ligand-independent association between TRAIL receptor 4 (TR4) and TR2 regulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102(50): 18099-104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0507329102] [PMID: 16319225]
Loebinger MR, Eddaoudi A, Davies D, Janes SM. Mesenchymal stem cell delivery of TRAIL can eliminate metastatic cancer. Cancer Res 2009; 69(10): 4134-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4698] [PMID: 19435900]
Menon LG, Kelly K, Yang HW, Kim SK, Black PM, Carroll RS. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells expressing S-TRAIL as a cellular delivery vehicle for human glioma therapy. Stem Cells 2009; 27(9): 2320-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.136] [PMID: 19544410]
Grisendi G, Bussolari R, Cafarelli L, et al. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells as stable source of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand delivery for cancer therapy. Cancer Res 2010; 70(9): 3718-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1865] [PMID: 20388793]
Choi SA, Lee YE, Kwak PA, et al. Clinically applicable human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells delivering therapeutic genes to brainstem gliomas. Cancer Gene Ther 2015; 22(6): 302-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cgt.2015.25] [PMID: 26021486]
Allen H, Shraga-Heled N, Blumenfeld M, et al. Human Placental-Derived Adherent Stromal Cells Co-Induced with TNF-α and IFN-γ Inhibit Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Nude Mouse Xenograft Models. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 670.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18428-1] [PMID: 29330447]
Ylostalo JH, Bartosh TJ, Tiblow A, Prockop DJ. Unique characteristics of human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSC) pre-activated in 3D cultures under different conditions. Cytotherapy 2014; 16: 1486-500.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2014.07.010] [PMID: 25231893]
Bartosh TJ, Ylöstalo JH, Mohammadipoor A, et al. Aggregation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into 3D spheroids enhances their antiinflammatory properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107(31): 13724-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1008117107] [PMID: 20643923]
Lee RH, Yoon N, Reneau JC, Prockop DJ. Preactivation of human MSCs with TNF-α enhances tumor-suppressive activity. Cell Stem Cell 2012; 11(6): 825-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.10.001] [PMID: 23142520]
Yoon N, Park MS, Peltier GC, Lee RH. Pre-activated human mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with doxorubicin synergistically enhance tumor-suppressive activity in mice. Cytotherapy 2015; 17(10): 1332-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2015.06.009] [PMID: 26227206]
Yoon N, Park MS, Shigemoto T, Peltier G, Lee RH. Activated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells suppress met-astatic features of MDA-MB-231 cells by secreting IFN-β Cell Death Dis 2016; 7e2191
Du J, Zhou L, Chen X, et al. IFN-γ-primed human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induce tumor cell apoptosis in vitro via tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2012; 44(8): 1305-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2012.04.015] [PMID: 22554587]
Frith JE, Thomson B, Genever PG. Dynamic three-dimensional culture methods enhance mesenchymal stem cell properties and increase therapeutic potential. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2010; 16(4): 735-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.tec.2009.0432] [PMID: 19811095]
Van Pham P. Concise review: Extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells as cellular therapy. Biomed Res Ther 2017; 4: 1562-73.
Ostrowski M, Carmo NB, Krumeich S, et al. Rab27a and Rab27b control different steps of the exosome se-cretion pathway Nat Cell Biol 2010; 12(1) 19,1-30,13..
Mincheva-Nilsson L, Baranov V, Nagaeva O, Dehlin E. Isolation and characterization of exosomes from cultures of tis-sue explants and cell lines. Curr Protoc Immunol 2016.
Hegmans JPJJ, Gerber PJ, Lambrecht BN. Exosomes. Methods Mol Biol 2008; 484: 97-109.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-398-1_7] [PMID: 18592175]
Baglio SR, Pegtel DM, Baldini N. Mesenchymal stem cell secreted vesicles provide novel opportunities in (stem) cell-free therapy. Front Physiol 2012; 3(SEP): 359.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00359] [PMID: 22973239]
Camussi G, Deregibus MC, Bruno S, Cantaluppi V, Biancone L. Exosomes/microvesicles as a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Kidney Int 2010; 78(9): 838-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.278] [PMID: 20703216]
Lee J-K, Park SR, Jung BK, et al. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells suppress angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF expression in breast cancer cells. PLoS One 2013; 8(12) e84256
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084256] [PMID: 24391924]
Reza AMMT, Choi YJ, Yasuda H, Kim JH. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal-miRNAs are critical factors for inducing anti-proliferation signalling to A2780 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 38498.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep38498] [PMID: 27929108]
Lang FM, Hossain A, Gumin J, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells as natural biofactories for exosomes carrying miR-124a in the treatment of gliomas. Neuro-oncol 2018; 20(3): 380-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nox152] [PMID: 29016843]
Katakowski M, Buller B, Zheng X, et al. Exosomes from marrow stromal cells expressing miR-146b inhibit glioma growth. Cancer Lett 2013; 335(1): 201-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2013.02.019] [PMID: 23419525]
Munoz JL, Bliss SA, Greco SJ, Ramkissoon SH, Ligon KL, Rameshwar P. Delivery of functional anti-miR-9 by mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes to glioblastoma multiforme cells conferred chemosensitivity Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2013; 2e126
Yuan Z, Kolluri KK, Gowers KHC, Janes SM. TRAIL delivery by MSC-derived extracellular vesicles is an effective anticancer therapy. J Extracell Vesicles 2017; 6(1) 1265291
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20013078.2017.1265291] [PMID: 28326166]
Xie C, Yang Z, Suo Y, et al. Systemically infused mesenchymal stem cells show different homing profiles in healthy and tumor mouse models. Stem Cells Transl Med 2017; 6(4): 1120-31.
[PMID: 28205428]
Eggenhofer E, Benseler V, Kroemer A, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells are short-lived and do not migrate beyond the lungs after intravenous infusion. Front Immunol 2012; 3: 297.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00297] [PMID: 23056000]
Eggenhofer E, Luk F, Dahlke MH, Hoogduijn MJ. The life and fate of mesenchymal stem cells. Front Immunol 2014; 5: 148.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00148] [PMID: 24904568]
Schrepfer S, Deuse T, Reichenspurner H, Fischbein MP, Robbins RC, Pelletier MP. Stem cell transplantation: the lung barrier. Transplant Proc 2007; 39(2): 573-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2006.12.019] [PMID: 17362785]
Crivelli B, Chlapanidas T, Perteghella S, et al. Italian Mesenchymal Stem Cell Group (GISM). Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell extracellular vesicles: From active principle to next generation drug delivery system. J Control Release 2017; 262: 104-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.07.023] [PMID: 28736264]

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 30 September, 2020
Page: [482 - 491]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1574888X15666200310171547
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 14