Exosomes and biomimetic nanoparticles have great potential to develop into a wide-scale
therapeutic platform within the regenerative medicine industry. Exosomes, a subgroup of EVs with
diameter ranging from 30-100 nm, have recently gained attention as an innovative approach for the
treatment of various diseases, including heart disease. Their beneficial factors and regenerative properties
can be contrasted with various cell types. Various biomimetic nanoparticles have also emerged as a
unique platform in regenerative medicine. Biomimetic nanoparticles are a drug delivery platform,
which have the ability to contain both biological and fabricated components to improve therapeutic
efficiency and targeting. The novelty of these platforms holds promise for future clinical translation
upon further investigation. In order for both exosome therapeutics and biomimetic nanoparticles to
translate into large-scale clinical treatment, numerous factors must first be considered and improved.
Standardization of different protocols, from exosome isolation to storage conditions, must be optimized
to ensure batches are pure. Standardization is also important to ensure no variability in this process
across studies, thus making it easier to interpret data across different disease models and treatments.
Expansion of clinical trials incorporating both biomimetic nanoparticles and exosomes will require a
standardization of fabrication and isolation techniques, as well as stricter regulations to ensure reproducibility
across various studies and disease models. This review will summarize current research on
exosome therapeutics and the application of biomimetic nanoparticles in cardiac regenerative medicine,
as well as applications for exosome expansion and delivery on a large clinical scale.
Keywords: Exosomes, regenerative medicine, biomimetic nanoparticles, drug delivery, extracellular vesicles, mesenchymal
stem cells, secretome.
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