There is an increasing number of patients worldwide with sleep disturbances and diabetes.
Various sleep disorders, including long or short sleep duration and poor sleep quality of numerous
causes, may increase the risk of diabetes. Some symptoms of diabetes, such as painful peripheral
neuropathy and nocturia, or associated other sleep disorders, such as sleep breathing disorders
or sleep movement disorders, may influence sleep quality and quantity. Both sleep disorders and
diabetes may lead to cognitive impairment. The risk of development of cognitive impairment in
diabetic patients may be related to vascular and non-vascular and other factors, such as hypoglycemia,
hyperglycemia, central insulin resistance, amyloid and tau deposits and other causes. Numerous
sleep disorders, e.g., sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, insomnia, and poor sleep quality are
most likely are also associated with cognitive impairment. Adequate functioning of the system of
clearance of the brain from toxic substances, such as amyloid β, i.e. glymphatic system, is related to
undisturbed sleep and prevents cognitive impairment. In the case of coexistence, sleep disturbances
and diabetes either independently lead to and/or mutually aggravate cognitive impairment.