Evaluating Hemolytic and Photo Hemolytic Potential of Organophosphorus by In Vitro Method as an Alternative Tool Using Human Erythrocytes

Author(s): Ana L.G. Soria, Fabiola R. Ramirez, Alberto B. Pliego, Héctor R.D. Guadarrama, Guadalupe P.M. Farrera, Gilberto Y. Angel, Juan C.V. Chagoyán, Raafat M.M. Gomaa, Esvieta Tenorio-Borroto*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 9 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Aims: The present study aims to determine the phototoxic and haemolytic activity of organophosphorus. The use of alternative in vitro assays with human erythrocytes is suggested to predict the polluting effect of these products on health.

Methodology: Human erythrocytes from Toluca Blood Bank were used. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was employed as a positive control. Additionally, the haemolysis percentage of three organophosphate (Acetate, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Methamidophos, Methyl Parathion) induced photo haemolysis formulated with surfactants on a concentration of 2 x 109 erythrocytes were evaluated. Finally, the products were classified as irritant or phototoxic.

Results: Results showed that the HC50 red blood cells were similar for each organophosphate (Malathion and Methamidophos) indicating very irritant action with ratio classification (L/D) of 0.041 and 0.053, respectively. On the other hand, Chlorpyrifos was classified as an irritant with L/D= 0.14. On the other hand, the HC50 obtained photo hemolysis assays irradiated red blood cells was similar for each organophosphate (Acetate, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, Methamidophos, Methyl Parathion) indicating no phototoxic action.

Conclusion: As a conclusion, it can be said that the parameters of haemolysis and denaturation of proteins are good indicators to classify organophosphorus formulated with surfactants as irritating or phototoxic.

Keywords: Erythrocyte, Hemolysis, Human, In vitro, Organophosphorus, Phototoxicity.

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Yap, F.H.X.; Chua, H.C.; Tait, C.P. Active sunscreen ingredients in Australia. Australas. J. Dermatol., 2017, 58(4), e160-e170.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajd.12597] [PMID: 28295176]
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Alves, E.N.; Presgrave, Rde.F.; Presgrave, O.A.; Sabagh, F.P.; de Freitas, J.C.; Corrado, A.P. A reassessment of the in vitro RBC haemolysis assay with defibrinated sheep blood for the determination of the ocular irritation potential of cosmetic products: comparison with the in vivo Draize rabbit test. Altern. Lab. Anim., 2008, 36(3), 275-284.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026119290803600305] [PMID: 18662092]
[7]
Budai, P.; Lehel, J.; Tavaszi, J.; Kormos, E. HET-CAM test for determining the possible eye irritancy of pesticides. Acta Vet. Hung., 2010, 58(3), 369-377.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/AVet.58.2010.3.9] [PMID: 20713327]
[8]
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.06.001] [PMID: 22687423]
[9]
Kumar, S.; Devi, S.; Misra, P.; Priyanka, Solar and artificial ultraviolet-B induced erythrocytes hemolysis with photosensitizers. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2009, 47(11), 906-910.
[PMID: 20099464]
[10]
Khattak, S.U.; Ahmad, I.; Usmanghani, K.; Qazi, M.S. In vitro evaluation of betamethasone esters for phototoxic potential. Drug Chem. Toxicol., 2012, 35(1), 43-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01480545.2011.588441] [PMID: 21834694]
[11]
Ahmadi, A.; Pakravan, N.; Ghazizadeh, Z. Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 2010, 29(9), 731-738.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110361501] [PMID: 20144960]
[12]
Nascimento, D.S.; Insausti, M.; Band, B.S.F.; Grünhut, M. Photolysis study of octyl p-methoxycinnamate loaded microemulsion by molecular fluorescence and chemometric approach. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 2017.
[PMID: 29049974]
[13]
Abdollahi, M.; Karami-Mohajeri, S. A comprehensive review on experimental and clinical findings in intermediate syndrome caused by organophosphate poisoning. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2012, 258(3), 309-314.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.11.014] [PMID: 22177963]
[14]
Bayir, A.; Kara, H.; Köylü, O.; Kocabas, R.; Ak, A. The effects of ubiquinone (CoQ10) on heart tissue in cardiac toxicity related to organophosphate poisoning. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 2013, 32(1), 45-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327112455070] [PMID: 23060413]
[15]
Wang, C.; Shixiang, Z.; Wenjie, L.; Chao, Y.; Xiazhang, L.; Zhongyu, L. Preparation of rutile TiO 2 @avobenzone composites for the further enhancement of sunscreen performance. RSC Advances, 2016, 6(113), 111865-111871.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6RA23282E]
[16]
Azazh, A. Severe organophosphate poisoning with delayed cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy on succession. Ethiop. J. Health Sci., 2011, 21(3), 203-208.
[PMID: 22435001]
[17]
Eddleston, M.; Adhikari, S.; Egodage, S.; Ranganath, H.; Mohamed, F.; Manuweera, G.; Azher, S.; Jayamanne, S.; Juzczak, E.; Sheriff, M.R.; Dawson, A.H.; Buckley, N.A. Effects of a provincial ban of two toxic organophosphorus insecticides on pesticide poisoning hospital admissions. Clin. Toxicol. (Phila.), 2012, 50(3), 202-209.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2012.660573] [PMID: 22372788]
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Lu, X.T.; Ma, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, X.F.; Jin, D.Q.; Huang, C.J. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage of five organophosphorus pesticides mediated by oxidative stress in PC12 cells and protection by vitamin E. J. Environ. Sci. Health B, 2012, 47(5), 445-454.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2012.663312] [PMID: 22424070]
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Belsey, N.A.; Cordery, S.F.; Bunge, A.L.; Guy, R.H. Assessment of dermal exposure to pesticide residues during re-entry. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45(10), 4609-4615.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es200172q] [PMID: 21510672]
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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 9
Year: 2020
Published on: 18 May, 2020
Page: [738 - 745]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200226104029
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