Background and Objectives: Present years biogenic nanomaterials are deeply concerned in biomedicine because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory or antitumor performance. This study was intended to biologically synthesize gold nanoparticles using N. foetida, a camptothecin producing plant and evaluation of their potent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells and antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria.
Methods: The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scaning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform-infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay on Gram positive and negative bacteria whereas cytotoxicity against cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay and genotoxicity was assayed by DNA fragmentation.
Results: Results of TEM and DLS showed synthesis of 20-200 nm sized NFAuNPs. The NFAuNPs exerted growth inhibitory effects on Gram negative bacteria where MIC for inhibition of E.coli was 0.15 mg/mL where as the MIC of AuNPs to inhibit growth of P. aeruginosa was 0.25 mg/mL. The cytotoxicity results indicated that the sublethal concentration NFAuNPs required to inhibit 50 % of cell growth (IC50) of cancer cells including HeLa, MCF-7 and HCT-15 are 7.2, 9.67 and 5.28 µg/mL after 48h of exposure. DNA fragmentation in cells exposed to 10 to 75 µg/mL concentrations of AuNPs revealed the genotoxic effects of NFAuNPs.
Conclusion: Thus, the study revealed the biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using N. foetida plant extract and its biological potential as antimicrobial and anticancer agent.