Carbon Nanotubes for Amplification of Electrochemical Signal in Drug and Food Analysis; A Mini Review

Author(s): Fatemeh Karimi*, Nilofar Zakariae, Roghayeh Esmaeili, Marzieh Alizadeh, Ali-Mohammad Tamadon

Journal Name: Current Biochemical Engineering

Volume 6 , Issue 2 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Electrochemical sensors are widely used for the determination of drugs and food compounds. In recent years, the amplification of electrochemical signals with nanomaterials, especially Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has created a major revolution in electrochemistry.

Objective: The present mini-review paper focused on studying the role of CNTs as conductive mediators for the fabrication of highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. CNTs, with high conductivity and good ability for modification with other materials, are interesting candidates for improving the sensitivity of electrochemical sensors. CNTs or their derivatives are suggested for different applications in electrochemistry and especially analytical biosensors. This review is aimed to discuss the conductivity feature of CNTs in electrochemical sensors.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, electrochemical sensors, drug analysis, food analysis, nanomaterials, review.

L.M. Reid, C.P. O’Donnell, and G. Downey, "Recent technological advances for the determination of food authenticity", Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 17, pp. 344-353, 2006.
T. Zabihpour, S.A. Shahidi, and H. Karimi Maleh, Eurasian Chemical Communications,, vol. 2, pp. 362-373, 2020.
G. Rädlinger, and K.G. Heumann, "Iodine determination in food samples using inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry", Anal. Chem., vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 2221-2224, 1998.
[] [PMID: 9624896]
B. Srdjenovic, V. Djordjevic-Milic, N. Grujic, R. Injac, and Z. Lepojevic, "Simultaneous HPLC determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products", J. Chromatogr. Sci., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 144-149, 2008.
[] [PMID: 18366874]
X. Wen, Q. Yang, Z. Yan, and Q. Deng, "Determination of cadmium and copper in water and food samples by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with UV–vis spectrophotometry", Microchem. J., vol. 97, pp. 249-254, 2011.
M. Jestoi, T. Järvinen, E. Järvenpää, H. Tapanainen, S. Virtanen, and K. Peltonen, "Furan in the baby-food samples purchased from the Finnish markets – Determination with SPME–GC–MS", Food Chem., vol. 117, pp. 522-528, 2009.
T. Jamali, H. Karimi-Maleh, and M.A. Khalilzadeh, "A novel nanosensor based on Pt:Co nanoalloy ionic liquid carbon paste electrode for voltammetric determination of vitamin B9 in food samples", Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., vol. 57, pp. 679-685, 2014.
F. Faridbod, and A.L. Sanati, "Graphene Quantum Dots in Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors", Curr. Anal. Chem., vol. 15, pp. 103-123, 2019.
A.L. Sanati, H. Karimi-Maleh, and M. Abbasghorbani, "Synthesis of NiO nanoparticle and application of its in the preparation of electrochemical sensor for voltammetric determination of Nalbuphine", J. Appl. Chem., vol. 9, pp. 35-40, 2015.
M. Fouladgar, "CuO-CNT nanocomposite/ionic liquid modified sensor as new breast anticancer approach for determination of doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil drugs", J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 165, no. 13, pp. B559-B564, 2018.
F. Hasanpour, M. Taei, and M. Fouladgar, "A voltammetric sensor based on spinel-structured copper ferrite nanoparticles multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified carbon paste electrode for determination of dacarbazine", Russ. J. Electrochem., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 70-76, 2018.
S. Negahban, M. Fouladgar, and G. Amiri, "Improve the performance of carbon paste electrodes for determination of dobutamine using MnZnFe2O4 nanoparticles and ionic liquid", J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 78, pp. 51-55, 2017.
M. Abbasghorbani, "Fe3O4 loaded single wall carbon nanotubes and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazlium chloride as two amplifiers for fabrication of highly sensitive voltammetric sensor for epirubicin", J. Mol. Liq., vol. 266, pp. 176-180, 2018.
M. Abbasghorbani, "Electrochemical determination of vanillin in food samples using MgO/SWCNTs-ionic liquid modified electrode", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 11656-11665, 2017.
S. Salmanpour, M. Abbasghorbani, F. Karimi, R. Bavandpour, and Y. Wen, Curr. Anal. Chem., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40-45, 2017.
V.K. Gupta, H. Mahmoody, F. Karimi, S. Agarwal, and M. Abbasghorbani, "Electrochemical determination of adrenaline using voltammetric sensor employing NiO/CNTs based carbon paste electrode", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 248-257, 2017.
V. Arabali, M. Ebrahimi, S. Gheibi, F. Khaleghi, M. Bijad, A. Rudbaraki, M. Abbasghorbani, and M.R. Ganjali, "Bisphenol A analysis in food samples using modified nanostructure carbon paste electrode as a sensor", Food Anal. Methods, vol. 9, pp. 1763-1769, 2016.
S. Iijima, "Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes", Nature, vol. 354, pp. 56-58, 1991.
T.M.B.F. Oliveira, Appl. Sci. (Basel), vol. 8, p. 1925, 2018.
M. Najafi, M.A. Khalilzadeh, and H. Karimi-Maleh, "A new strategy for determination of bisphenol A in the presence of Sudan I using a ZnO/CNTs/ionic liquid paste electrode in food samples", Food Chem., vol. 158, pp. 125-131, 2014.
[] [PMID: 24731323]
A.L. Sanati, H. Karimi-Maleh, A. Badiei, P. Biparva, and A.A. Ensafi, "A voltammetric sensor based on NiO/CNTs ionic liquid carbon paste electrode for determination of morphine in the presence of diclofenac", Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 35, pp. 379-385, 2014.
[] [PMID: 24411391]
V.K. Gupta, S. Rostami, H. Karimi-Male, F. Karimi, M. Keyvanfard, and T.A. Saleh, "Square Wave Voltammetric Analysis of Carbidopa Based on Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with ZnO/CNTs Nanocomposite and n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluoro Phosphate Ionic Liquid", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 10, pp. 1517-1528, 2015.
H. Karimi-Maleh, A. Bananezhad, M.R. Ganjali, and P. Norouzi, "Electrochemical nanostructure platform for the analysis of glutathione in the presence of uric acid and tryptophan", Anal. Methods, vol. 9, pp. 6228-6234, 2017.
F. Tahernejad-Javazmi, M. Shabani-Nooshabadi, and H. Karimi-Maleh, "Analysis of glutathione in the presence of acetaminophen and tyrosine via an amplified electrode with MgO/SWCNTs as a sensor in the hemolyzed erythrocyte", Talanta, vol. 176, pp. 208-213, 2018.
[] [PMID: 28917742]
Y. Akbarian, M. Shabani-Nooshabadi, and Hassan Karimi Maleh, "“Fabrication of a new electrocatalytic sensor for determination of diclofenac, morphine and mefenamic acid using synergic effect of NiO-SWCNT and 2, 4-dimethyl-N/- 1- (2, 3-dihydroxy phenyl) methylidene aniline”", Sens. Actuat. B Chem, vol. 273, pp. 228-233, .
J. Wang, "Electrochemical glucose biosensors", Chem. Rev., vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 814-825, 2008.
[] [PMID: 18154363]
J. Wang, M. Li, Z. Shi, N. Li, and Z. Gu, "Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c at a glassy carbon electrode modified with single-wall carbon nanotubes", Anal. Chem., vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 1993-1997, 2002.
[] [PMID: 12033297]
M. Musameh, J. Wang, A. Merkoci, and Y. Lin, "Low-potential stable NADH detection at carbon-nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrodes", Electrochem. Commun., vol. 4, pp. 743-746, 2002.
M.D. Rubianes, and G.A. Rivas, "Carbon nanotubes paste electrode", Electrochem. Commun., vol. 5, pp. 689-694, 2003.
A.A. Ensafi, and H. Karimi Maleh, "A Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrode as a Sensor and Ferrocenemonocarboxylic Acid as a Mediator for Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoproterenol", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 1484-1495, 2010.
R.T. Kachoosangi, G.G. Wildgoose, and R.G. Compton, "Sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of paracetamol at multiwalled carbon nanotube modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode", Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 618, no. 1, pp. 54-60, 2008.
[] [PMID: 18501245]
T. Tavana, M.A. Khalilzadeh, H. Karimi-Maleh, A.A. Ensafi, H. Beitollahi, and D. Zareyee, "Sensitive voltammetric determination of epinephrine in the presence of acetaminophen at a novel ionic liquid modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode", J. Mol. Liq., vol. 168, pp. 69-74, 2012.
A. Mokhtari, H. Karimi-Maleh, A.A. Ensafi, and H. Beitollahi, "Application of modified multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode for simultaneous voltammetric determination of morphine and diclofenac in biological and pharmaceutical samples", Sens. Actuators B Chem., vol. 169, pp. 96-105, 2012.
K.J. Huang, X. Liu, W.Z. Xie, and H.X. Yuan, "Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of norfloxacin at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion", Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 269-274, 2008.
[] [PMID: 18358704]
S. Shahrokhian, M. Ghalkhani, M. Adeli, and M.K. Amini, "Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with immobilised cobalt nanoparticle for modification of glassy carbon electrode: application to sensitive voltammetric determination of thioridazine", Biosens. Bioelectron., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 3235-3241, 2009.
[] [PMID: 19443205]
F. Xiao, F. Zhao, J. Li, L. Liu, and B. Zeng, "Characterization of hydrophobic ionic liquid-carbon nanotubes–gold nanoparticles composite film coated electrode and the simultaneous voltammetric determination of guanine and adenine", Electrochim. Acta, vol. 53, pp. 781-7788, 2008.
B. Rezaei, and S. Damiri, "Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode as a Sensor for Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Hydrochlorothiazide", IEEE Sens. J., vol. 8, pp. 1523-1529, 2008.
R. Jain, and J.A. Rather, "Voltammetric determination of antibacterial drug gemifloxacin in solubilized systems at multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode", Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 340-346, 2011.
[] [PMID: 21177081]
R.N. Goyal, V.K. Gupta, and S. Chatterjee, "Voltammetric biosensors for the determination of paracetamol at carbon nanotube modified pyrolytic graphite electrode", Sens. Actuators B Chem., vol. 149, pp. 252-258, 2010.
M. Fouladgar, and H. Karimi-Maleh, "Ionic liquid/multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode for square wave voltammetric determination of methyldopa", Ionics, vol. 19, pp. 1163-1170, 2013.
B.J. Sanghavi, and A.K. Srivastava, "Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine using an in situ surfactant-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode", Electrochim. Acta, vol. 55, pp. 8638-8648, 2010.
V. Arancibia,, J.P. Llanos, E. Nagles, O.G. Beltrán, and J.J. Hurtado, "Development of a microcomposite with single-walled carbon nanotubes and Nd2O3 for determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical dosage by adsorptive voltammetry", J. Pharmaceut. Anal, vol. 9, pp. 62-69, 2019.
A.P. Murthy, K. Duraimurugan, J. Sridhar, and J. Madhavan, "Application of derivative voltammetry in the quantitative determination of alloxan at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode", Electrochim. Acta, vol. 317, pp. 182-190, 2019.
M.P.M. Itkes, " Oliveira, T.A. Silva, O. Fatibello-Filho, and B.C. Janegitz, “Voltammetric sensing of fenitrothion in natural water and orange juice samples using a single-walled carbon nanohorns and zein modified sensor", J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 840, pp. 21-26, 2019.
P. Manjunatha, Y. Arthoba Nayaka, H.T. Purushothama, R.O. Yathisha, and M.M. Vinay, Ionics, vol. 25, pp. 2297-2309, 2019.
V.K. Gupta, F. Golestani, S. Ahmadzadeh, H. Karimi-Maleh, G. Fazli, and S. Khosravi, "NiO/CNTs Nanocomposite Modified Ionic Liquid Carbon Paste Electrode as a Voltammetric Sensor for Determination of Quercetin", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 10, pp. 3657-3667, 2015.
J. Li, D. Kuang, Y. Feng, F. Zhang, and M. Liu, "Voltammetric determination of bisphenol A in food package by a glassy carbon electrode modified with carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes", Microchimica Acta, VOL., vol. 172, pp. 379-386, 2011.
G.P. Jin, J.B. He, Z.B. Rui, and F.S. Meng, "Electrochemical behavior and adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of quercetin at multi-wall carbon nanotubes-modified paraffin-impregnated graphite disk electrode., vol. Vol. 51", Electrochimica. Acta, 2006.
Y. Zhao, J. Qin, H. Xu, S. Gao, T. Jiang, S. Zhang, and J. Jin, "Gold nanorods decorated with graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for trace level voltammetric determination of ascorbic acid", Mikrochim. Acta, vol. 186, no. 1, p. 17, 2018.
[] [PMID: 30542802]
Z. Mo, Y. Zhang, F. Zhao, F. Xiao, G. Guo, and B. Zeng, "Sensitive voltammetric determination of Sudan I in food samples by using gemini surfactant–ionic liquid–multiwalled carbon nanotube composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes", Food Chem., vol. 121, pp. 233-237, 2010.
L.P. Souza, F. Calegari, A.J.G. Zarbin, L.H. Marcolino-Júnior, and M.F. Bergamini, "Voltammetric determination of the antioxidant capacity in wine samples using a carbon nanotube modified electrode", J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 59, no. 14, pp. 7620-7625, 2011.
[] [PMID: 21692474]
S. Wei, F. Zhao, Z. Xu, and B. Zeng, "Voltammetric Determination of Folic Acid with a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Modified Gold Electrode", Mikrochim. Acta, vol. 152, pp. 285-290, 2006.
P. Xiao, F. Zhao, and B. Zeng, "Voltammetric determination of quercetin at a multi-walled carbon nanotubes paste electrode", Microchem. J., vol. 85, pp. 244-249, 2007.
S. Shahrokhian, and L. Fotouhi, "Carbon paste electrode incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotube/cobalt salophen for sensitive voltammetric determination of tryptophan", Sens. Actuators B Chem., vol. 123, pp. 942-949, 2007.
Y. Yao, H. Wu, and J. Ping, "Simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in honey and milk samples using a single-walled carbon nanohorns modified screen-printed electrochemical sensor", Food Chem., vol. 274, pp. 8-15, 2019.
[] [PMID: 30373012]
F. Karimi, M. Bijad, M. Farsi, A. Vahid, H. Asari-Bami, Y. Wen, and M.R. Ganjali, "A new nanostructure square wave voltammetric platform for determination of tert-butylhydroxyanisole in food samples", Curr. Anal. Chem., vol. 15, pp. 172-176, 2019.
F. Yang, "Uniform growth of Fe3O4 nanocubes on the single-walled carbon nanotubes as an electrosensor of organic dyes and the study on its catalytic mechanism", J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 833, pp. 70-78, 2019.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [114 - 119]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/2212711906666200224110404
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 8