Akt Pathway Inhibitors

Author(s): Nne E. Uko, Osman F. Güner, Diane F. Matesic, J. Phillip Bowen*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 10 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Cancer is a devastating disease that has plagued humans from ancient times to this day. After decades of slow research progress, promising drug development, and the identification of new targets, the war on cancer was launched, in 1972. The P13K/Akt pathway is a growth-regulating cellular signaling pathway, which in many human cancers is over-activated. Studies have demonstrated that a decrease in Akt activity by Akt inhibitors is associated with a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. There have been several promising drug candidates that have been studied, including but not limited to ipatasertib (RG7440), 1; afuresertib (GSK2110183), 2; uprosertib (GSK2141795), 3; capivasertib (AZD5363), 4; which reportedly bind to the ATP active site and inhibit Akt activity, thus exerting cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities against human cancer cells. For most of the compounds discussed in this review, data from preclinical studies in various cancers suggest a mechanistic basis involving hyperactivated Akt signaling. Allosteric inhibitors are also known to alter the activity of kinases. Perifosine (KRX- 0401), 5, an alkylphospholipid, is known as the first allosteric Akt inhibitor to enter clinical development and is mechanistically characterized as a PH-domain dependent inhibitor, non-competitive with ATP. This results in a reduction in Akt enzymatic and cellular activities. Other small molecule (MK- 2206, 6, PHT-427, Akti-1/2) inhibitors with a similar mechanism of action, alter Akt activity through the suppression of cell growth mediated by the inhibition of Akt membrane localization and subsequent activation. The natural product solenopsin has been identified as an inhibitor of Akt. A few promising solenopsin derivatives have emerged through pharmacophore modeling, energy-based calculations, and property predictions.

Keywords: Akt activation, Akt binding site, Akt kinase, Akt inhibitors, ATP inhibitors, Cancer, Drug design, Phosphorylation, Pharmacophore, Computational chemistry, Computer-assisted drug design, Molecular modeling, P13K/Akt pathway, PKB, to Ipatasertib (RG7440), Afuresertib (GSK2110183), Uprosertib (GSK2141795), Capivasertib (AZD5363), Perifosine (KRX- 0401), Solenopsin, Solenopsin analogues.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 10
Year: 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200224101808
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