The Emerging Role of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Psychiatry

Author(s): Donatella Marazziti, Filippo Maria Barberi, Federico Mucci*, Alessandra Maglio, Valerio Dell’Oste, Liliana Dell’Osso

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 28 , Issue 1 , 2021


  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Introduction: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), composed by 28 amino-acids, is well known to modulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the immune system. Since ANP is produced in both heart and in the central nervous system (CNS), in the last years, increasing attention has been devoted to its possible role in neuropsychiatric disorders. Indeed, scattered data would indicate its possible role in anxiety, major depression, addictive behaviors, post-traumatic stress disorder and other stress-related disorders. Further, ANP has been hypothesized to represent one of the factors linking depression to cardiovascular health and the immune system.

Aims: Given the paucity of available information, the aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the role of ANP in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric and stress-related conditions.

Discussion: Supporting data on ANP in psychiatric disorders are still limited to animal studies, or to a few “real” findings in patients gathered some decades ago that should be replicated in larger clinical samples.

Conclusion: Further studies are necessary to understand the possible implications of ANP in neuropsychiatry, because potentially it might represent a new way for innovative psychopharmacological treatments in different conditions, all underlaid by hyperactive HPA axis.

Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide, depression, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, ANP.

[1]
Cantin, M.; Genest, J. The heart as an endocrine gland. Hypertension, 1987, 10(5 Pt 2), I118-I121.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.10.5_pt_2.i118] [PMID: 2824360]
[2]
Morgenthaler, N.G.; Struck, J.; Thomas, B.; Bergmann, A. Immunoluminometric assay for the midregion of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in human plasma. Clin. Chem., 2004, 50(1), 234-236.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2003.021204] [PMID: 14709661]
[3]
Hunter, I.; Alehagen, U.; Dahlström, U.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Crimmins, D.L.; Goetze, J.P. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide measurement in plasma suggests covalent modification. Clin. Chem., 2011, 57(9), 1327-1330.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2011.166330] [PMID: 21715695]
[4]
Nagai-Okatani, C.; Kangawa, K.; Takashio, S.; Takahama, H.; Hayashi, T.; Anzai, T.; Minamino, N. Novel chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays for individual quantification of 3 endogenous molecular forms of atrial natriuretic peptide in human plasma. J. Appl. Lab. Med., 2016, 1(1), 47-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/jalm.2016.020230]
[5]
Fink, G.; Dow, R.C.; Casley, D.; Johnston, C.I.; Lim, A.T.; Copolov, D.L.; Bennie, J.; Carroll, S.; Dick, H. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a physiological inhibitor of ACTH release: evidence from immunoneutralization in vivo. J. Endocrinol., 1991, 131(3), R9-R12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.131R009] [PMID: 1664448]
[6]
Antoni, F.A.; Hunter, E.F.; Lowry, P.J.; Noble, J.M.; Seckl, J.R. Atriopeptin: an endogenous corticotropin-release inhibiting hormone. Endocrinology, 1992, 130(3), 1753-1755.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/endo.130.3.1311248] [PMID: 1311248]
[7]
Nishikimi, T.; Maeda, N.; Matsuoka, H. The role of natriuretic peptides in cardioprotection. Cardiovasc. Res., 2006, 69(2), 318-328.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.10.001] [PMID: 16289003]
[8]
de Bold, AJ; Borenstein, HB; Veress, AT; Sonnenberg, H A rapid and potent natriuretic response to intravenous injection of atrial myocardial extract in rats. Life Sci., 1981, 28(1), 89-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(81)90370-2] [PMID: 7219045]
[9]
Wisén, A.G.; Ekberg, K.; Wohlfart, B.; Ekman, R.; Westrin, A. Plasma ANP and BNP during exercise in patients with major depressive disorder and in healthy controls. J. Affect. Disord., 2011, 129(1-3), 371-375.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.002 ] [PMID: 20875919]
[10]
Koller, K.J.; de Sauvage, F.J.; Lowe, D.G.; Goeddel, D.V. Conservation of the kinaselike regulatory domain is essential for activation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylyl cyclases. Mol. Cell. Biol., 1992, 12(6), 2581-2590.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.12.6.2581] [PMID: 1350322]
[11]
Hansson, M. Natriuretic peptides in relation to the cardiac innervation and conduction system. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2002, 58(5), 378-386.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.10158] [PMID: 12226807]
[12]
Meyer, T.; Herrmann-Lingen, C. Natriuretic peptides in anxiety and panic disorder. Vitam. Horm., 2017, 103, 131-145.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2016.08.002 ] [PMID: 28061968]
[13]
Shiono, S.; Nakao, K.; Morii, N.; Yamada, T.; Itoh, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Sugawara, A.; Saito, Y.; Katsuura, G.; Imura, H. Nature of atrial natriuretic polypeptide in rat brain. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1986, 135(3), 728-734.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(86)90989-7] [PMID: 2938583]
[14]
Gardner, D.G.; Vlasuk, G.P.; Baxter, J.D.; Fiddes, J.C.; Lewicki, J.A. Identification of atrial natriuretic factor gene transcripts in the central nervous system of the rat. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1987, 84(8), 2175-2179.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.84.8.2175] [PMID: 2951736]
[15]
Imura, H.; Nakao, K.; Itoh, H. The natriuretic peptide system in the brain: implications in the central control of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine functions. Front. Neuroendocrinol., 1992, 13(3), 217-249.
[PMID: 1334000]
[16]
Chriguer, R.S.; Rocha, M.J.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.; Franci, C.R. Hypothalamic atrial natriuretic peptide and secretion of oxytocin. Brain Res., 2001, 889(1-2), 239-242.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(00)03096-1] [PMID: 11166711]
[17]
Tojo, K.; Sato, S.; Tokudome, G.; Ohta, M.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Sakai, O.; Nakagawa, O.; Nakao, K. Stimulation by corticotropin-releasing factor of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide secretions from cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1996, 225(2), 340-346.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1996.1177] [PMID: 8753766]
[18]
Colao, A.; Pivonello, R.; Ferone, D.; Faggiano, A.; Facciolli, G.; Di Somma, C.; Boudouresque, F.; Oliver, C.; Lombardi, G. Effect of corticotrophin-releasing hormone on arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic factor in patients with Cushing’s disease. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.), 1998, 49(1), 77-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2265.1998.00479.x] [PMID: 9797850]
[19]
Kaczmarczyk, M.; Otte, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Kuehl, L.K.; Schultebraucks, K.; Spitzer, C.; Wingenfeld, K. Major depression and atrial natriuretic peptide: the role of adverse childhood experiences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2019, 101, 7-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.10.020] [PMID: 30391559]
[20]
Schuch, F.B.; Vancampfort, D.; Richards, J.; Rosenbaum, S.; Ward, P.B.; Stubbs, B. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2016, 77, 42-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.02.023] [PMID: 26978184]
[21]
Guzel, D.; Yazici, A.B.; Pek, T.M.; Doganay, S.; Simsek, A.B.S.; Saglam, K.; Turan, C.; Yazici, E. Atrial natriuretic peptide and posterior pituitary neurohormone changes in patients with acute schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat., 2018, 14, 1855-1860.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S169619] [PMID: 30038496]
[22]
Koopmann, A.; Leménager, T.; Wolf, N.D.; Reinhard, I.; Hermann, D.; Koch, J.; Wiedemann, K.; Kiefer, F. The impact of atrial natriuretic peptide on anxiety, stress and craving in patients with alcohol dependence. Alcohol Alcohol., 2014, 49(3), 282-286.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agt160] [PMID: 24166646]
[23]
Liberati, A.; Altman, D.G.; Tetzlaff, J.; Mulrow, C.; Gøtzsche, P.C.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Clarke, M.; Devereaux, P.J.; Kleijnen, J.; Moher, D. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med., 2009, 6(7)e1000100
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100] [PMID: 19621070]
[24]
Kellner, M.; Wiedemann, K.; Holsboer, F. Atrial natriuretic factor inhibits the CRH-stimulated secretion of ACTH and cortisol in man. Life Sci., 1992, 50(24), 1835-1842.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(92)90543-X] [PMID: 1317939]
[25]
Watabe, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Itoh, S.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Morio, K.; Takeda, F.; Ubukata, E.; Shuji, M.; Naokata, S. Role of endogenous arginine vasopressin in potentiating corticotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated corticotropin secretion in man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1988, 66(6), 1132-1137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem-66-6-1132] [PMID: 2836468]
[26]
Kellner, M.; Herzog, L.; Yassouridis, A.; Holsboer, F.; Wiedemann, K. Possible role of atrial natriuretic hormone in pituitary-adrenocortical unresponsiveness in lactate-induced panic. Am. J. Psychiatry, 1995, 152(9), 1365-1367.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.152.9.1365] [PMID: 7653695]
[27]
Kellner, M.; Knaudt, K.; Jahn, H.; Holsboer, F.; Wiedemann, K. Atrial natriuretic hormone in lactate-induced panic attacks: mode of release and endocrine and pathophysiological consequences. J. Psychiatr. Res., 1998, 32(1), 37-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3956(97)00034-4] [PMID: 9693999]
[28]
Jahn, H.; Montkowski, A.; Knaudt, K.; Ströhle, A.; Kiefer, F.; Schick, M.; Wiedemann, K. Alpha-helical-corticotropin-releasing hormone reverses anxiogenic effects of C-type natriuretic peptide in rats. Brain Res., 2001, 893(1-2), 21-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(00)03275-3] [PMID: 11222988]
[29]
Kellner, M.; Yassouridis, A.; Hua, Y.; Wendrich, M.; Jahn, H.; Wiedemann, K. Intravenous C-type natriuretic peptide augments behavioral and endocrine effects of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide in healthy men. J. Psychiatr. Res., 2002, 36(1), 1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3956(01)00042-5] [PMID: 11755455]
[30]
Ströhle, A.; Kellner, M.; Holsboer, F.; Wiedemann, K. Anxiolytic activity of atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with panic disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2001, 158(9), 1514-1516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.9.1514] [PMID: 11532742]
[31]
Herrmann-Lingen, C.; Binder, L.; Klinge, M.; Sander, J.; Schenker, W.; Beyermann, B.; von Lewinski, D.; Pieske, B. High plasma levels of N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide associated with low anxiety in severe heart failure. Psychosom. Med., 2003, 65(4), 517-522.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000073870.93003.C4] [PMID: 12883099]
[32]
Meyer, T.; Herrrmann-Lingen, C.; Chavanon, M.L.; Nolte, K.; Pasedach, C.A.; Binder, L.; Pieske, B.; Hasenfuss, G.; Wachter, R.; Edelmann, F. Higher plasma levels of MR-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide are linked to less anxiety: results from the observational DIAST-CHF study. Clin. Res. Cardiol., 2015, 104(7), 574-581.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-015-0820-9] [PMID: 25665711]
[33]
Edelmann, F.; Stahrenberg, R.; Polzin, F.; Kockskämper, A.; Düngen, H.D.; Duvinage, A.; Binder, L.; Kunde, J.; Scherer, M.; Gelbrich, G.; Hasenfuss, G.; Pieske, B.; Wachter, R.; Herrmann-Lingen, C. Impaired physical quality of life in patients with diastolic dysfunction associates more strongly with neurohumoral activation than with echocardiographic parameters: quality of life in diastolic dysfunction. Am. Heart J., 2011, 161(4), 797-804.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2011.01.003] [PMID: 21473981]
[34]
Meyer, T.; Buss, U.; Herrmann-Lingen, C. Role of cardiac disease severity in the predictive value of anxiety for all-cause mortality. Psychosom. Med., 2010, 72(1), 9-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181c64fc0] [PMID: 19995887]
[35]
Bíró, E.; Tóth, G.; Telegdy, G. Effect of receptor blockers on brain natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide caused anxiolytic state in rats. Neuropeptides, 1996, 30(1), 59-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0143-4179(96)90056-6] [PMID: 8868301]
[36]
Marazziti, D.; Baroni, S.; Giannaccini, G.; Piccinni, A.; Mucci, F.; Catena-Dell’Osso, M.; Rutigliano, G.; Massimetti, G.; Dell’Osso, L. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers. CNS Spectr., 2017, 22(3), 290-294.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S109285291600050X] [PMID: 28031054]
[37]
Disease, G.B.D.; Injury, I.; Prevalence, C. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet, 2016, 388(10053), 1545-1602.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6] [PMID: 27733282]
[38]
American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed; American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC, 2014.
[39]
Caspi, A.; Sugden, K.; Moffitt, T.E.; Taylor, A.; Craig, I.W.; Harrington, H.; McClay, J.; Mill, J.; Martin, J.; Braithwaite, A.; Poulton, R. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 2003, 301(5631), 386-389.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1083968] [PMID: 12869766]
[40]
Haeffel, G.J.; Gibb, B.E.; Metalsky, G.I.; Alloy, L.B.; Abramson, L.Y.; Hankin, B.L.; Joiner, T.E., Jr; Swendsen, J.D. Measuring cognitive vulnerability to depression: development and validation of the cognitive style questionnaire. Clin. Psychol. Rev., 2008, 28(5), 824-836.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.12.001] [PMID: 18234405]
[41]
Ruhé, H.G.; Mason, N.S.; Schene, A.H. Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies. Mol. Psychiatry, 2007, 12(4), 331-359.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001949] [PMID: 17389902]
[42]
Jones, S.G.; Benca, R.M. Circadian disruption in psychiatric disorders. Sleep Med. Clin., 2015, 10(4), 481-493.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2015.07.004] [PMID: 26568124]
[43]
Miller, A.H.; Raison, C.L. The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target. Nat. Rev. Immunol., 2016, 16(1), 22-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri.2015.5] [PMID: 26711676]
[44]
Mayberg, H.S. Limbic-cortical dysregulation: a proposed model of depression. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 1997, 9(3), 471-481.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/jnp.9.3.471] [PMID: 9276848]
[45]
Graham, J.; Salimi-Khorshidi, G.; Hagan, C.; Walsh, N.; Goodyer, I.; Lennox, B.; Suckling, J. Meta-analytic evidence for neuroimaging models of depression: state or trait? J. Affect. Disord., 2013, 151(2), 423-431.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.07.002] [PMID: 23890584]
[46]
Lopez-Duran, N.L.; Kovacs, M.; George, C.J. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in depressed children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2009, 34(9), 1272-1283.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.03.016] [PMID: 19406581]
[47]
Wiedemann, K.; Jahn, H.; Kellner, M. Effects of natriuretic peptides upon hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system activity and anxiety behaviour. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes, 2000, 108(1), 5-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1329209] [PMID: 10768826]
[48]
Herrmann-Lingen, C.; Meyer, T.; Bosbach, A.; Chavanon, M.L.; Hassoun, L.; Edelmann, F.; Wachter, R. cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of systolic blood pressure with quality of life and depressive mood in older adults with cardiovascular risk factors: results from the observational DIAST-CHF study. Psychosom. Med., 2018, 80(5), 468-474.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000591] [PMID: 29742752]
[49]
Krogh, J.; Ströhle, A.; Westrin, A.; Klausen, T.; Jørgensen, M.B.; Nordentoft, M. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2011, 36(5), 656-663.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.09.009] [PMID: 20950940]
[50]
Blumenthal, J.A.; Smith, P.J.; Hoffman, B.M. Is Exercise a viable treatment for depression? ACSM’s Health Fit. J., 2012, 16(4), 14-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.FIT.0000416000.09526.eb] [PMID: 23750100]
[51]
National institute of mental health. Schizophrenia, 2014. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml (Accessed date: January 2020)
[52]
Ohsawa, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Shimayoshi, N.; Matsumura, K.; Tahara, K.; Kitera, K.; Higashiura, N.; Noriyama, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Hirai, M.; Ikawa, G. Atrial natriuretic peptide and arginine vasopressin secretion in schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 1993, 88(2), 130-134.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1993.tb03426.x] [PMID: 8213206]
[53]
Kudoh, A.; Kudo, M.; Ishihara, H.; Matsuki, A. Increased plasma vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in chronic schizophrenic patients during abdominal surgery. Neuropsychobiology, 1998, 37(4), 169-174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000026498] [PMID: 9648123]
[54]
Seeman, M.V. Time and Schizophrenia. Psychiatry, 1976, 39(2), 189-195.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1976.11023888] [PMID: 1265159]
[55]
Vieweg, W.V.; Rowe, W.T.; David, J.J.; Sutker, L.H.; Spradlin, W.W. Evaluation of patients with self-induced water intoxication and schizophrenic disorders (SIWIS). J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1984, 172(9), 552-555.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198409000-00008] [PMID: 6470699]
[56]
Kamoi, K.; Ebe, T.; Kobayashi, O.; Ishida, M.; Sato, F.; Arai, O.; Tamura, T.; Takagi, A.; Yamada, A.; Ishibashi, M.; Yamaji, T. Atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and with diabetes insipidus. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1990, 70(5), 1385-1390.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem-70-5-1385] [PMID: 2139879]
[57]
Kovács, G.L. Alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates ethanol withdrawal symptoms. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 1993, 238(2-3), 417-419.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(93)90878-L] [PMID: 8405112]
[58]
Mutschler, J.; Bilbao, A.; von der Goltz, C.; Demiralay, C.; Jahn, H.; Wiedemann, K.; Spanagel, R.; Kiefer, F. Augmented stress-induced alcohol drinking and withdrawal in mice lacking functional natriuretic peptide-A receptors. Alcohol Alcohol., 2010, 45(1), 13-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agp065] [PMID: 19828462]
[59]
Gianoulakis, C.; Guillaume, P.; Thavundayil, J.; Gutkowska, J. Increased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide after ingestion of low doses of ethanol in humans. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., 1997, 21(1), 162-170.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1997.tb03744.x] [PMID: 9046389]
[60]
Kiefer, F.; Andersohn, F.; Jahn, H.; Wolf, K.; Raedler, T.J.; Wiedemann, K. Involvement of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide in protracted alcohol withdrawal. Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 2002, 105(1), 65-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.0_011.x] [PMID: 12086228]
[61]
Hillemacher, T.; Frieling, H.; Luber, K.; Yazici, A.; Muschler, M.A.; Lenz, B.; Wilhelm, J.; Kornhuber, J.; Bleich, S. Epigenetic regulation and gene expression of vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in alcohol withdrawal. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2009, 34(4), 555-560.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.10.019] [PMID: 19046820]
[62]
Adinoff, B.; Krebaum, S.R.; Chandler, P.A.; Ye, W.; Brown, M.B.; Williams, M.J. Dissection of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathology in 1-month-abstinent alcohol-dependent men, part 1: adrenocortical and pituitary glucocorticoid responsiveness. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., 2005, 29(4), 517-527.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ALC.0000158940.05529.0A] [PMID: 15834216]
[63]
Starcke, K.; van Holst, R.J.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E. Physiological and endocrine reactions to psychosocial stress in alcohol use disorders: duration of abstinence matters. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., 2013, 37(8), 1343-1350.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.12103] [PMID: 23488992]
[64]
von der Goltz, C.; Jahn, H.; Mutschler, J.; Wiedemann, K.; Kiefer, F. Intraperitoneal atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates anxiety-related behaviour during alcohol withdrawal in mice. Pharmacopsychiatry, 2014, 47(3), 97-100.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1372645] [PMID: 24846084]
[65]
Zohar, J.; Juven-Wetzler, A.; Myers, V.; Fostick, L. Post-traumatic stress disorder: facts and fiction. Curr. Opin. Psychiatry, 2008, 21(1), 74-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e3282f269ee] [PMID: 18281844]
[66]
Smith, M.A.; Davidson, J.; Ritchie, J.C.; Kudler, H.; Lipper, S.; Chappell, P.; Nemeroff, C.B. The corticotropin-releasing hormone test in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry, 1989, 26(4), 349-355.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(89)90050-4] [PMID: 2548631]
[67]
Kellner, M.; Yehuda, R. Do panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder share a common psychoneuroendocrinology? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1999, 24(5), 485-504.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4530(99)00012-8] [PMID: 10378237]
[68]
Kasckow, J.W.; Baker, D.; Geracioti, T.D., Jr Corticotropin-releasing hormone in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Peptides, 2001, 22(5), 845-851.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-9781(01)00399-0] [PMID: 11337099]
[69]
Kellner, M.; Yassouridis, A.; Hübner, R.; Baker, D.G.; Wiedemann, K. Endocrine and cardiovascular responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: a role for atrial natriuretic peptide? Neuropsychobiology, 2003, 47(2), 102-108.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000070018] [PMID: 12707494]
[70]
Marazziti, D. Clinical Psychopharmacotherapy, 1st ed; Giovanni Fioriti Editore: Roma, Italy, 2019.
[71]
Lissoni, P.; Messina, G.; Rovelli, F.; Merli, N.; Cusmai, R.; Brivio, F.; Lissoni, A.; Di Fede, G. The biochemical fundamantal biomarkers of the status of health against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Presence of cortisol and melatonin circadian rhythms, normal blood levels of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and transforming growth factorbeta (TGF-beta) and normal values of lymphocyte-tomonocyte ratio (LMR) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)- to-endothelin-1 (Et-1) ratio. J Immunol Sci., 2019, 3(3), 1-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.29245/2578-3009/2019/3.1169]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 28
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 18 February, 2020
Page: [69 - 79]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/0929867327666200219091102
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 31
HTML: 2