Serum lipid levels are closely related to the structure and function of blood vessels. Chronic hyperlipidemia
may lead to damage in both the cardio- and the cerebrovascular systems. Vascular dysfunctions, including
impairments of the blood-brain barrier, are known to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. A growing
number of evidence suggests that cardiovascular risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, may increase the likelihood
of developing dementia. Due to differences in lipoprotein metabolism, wild-type mice are protected against dietinduced
hypercholesterolemia, and their serum lipid profile is different from that observed in humans. Therefore,
several transgenic mouse models have been established to study the role of different apolipoproteins and their
receptors in lipid metabolism, as well as the complications related to pathological lipoprotein levels. This minireview
focused on a transgenic mouse model overexpressing an apolipoprotein, the human ApoB-100. We
discussed literature data and current advancements on the understanding of ApoB-100 induced cardio- and cerebrovascular
lesions in order to demonstrate the involvement of this type of apolipoprotein in a wide range of
pathologies, and a link between hyperlipidemia and neurodegeneration.
Keywords: ApoB-100 lipoprotein, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, blood-brain barrier (BBB), endothelial dysfunction, cerebrovascular
disease, neurodegeneration, dementia, transgenic mice.
open access plus
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