Background: Pneumonia is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in children and
adults worldwide. WHO report in 1999 stated that the main cause of death due to infectious disease
is pneumonia. The rising mortality rate among severe pneumonia patients is because they do not
receive empirical antibiotic treatment according to the infecting pathogens.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the bacterial profile and the use of antibiotic
treatment on pneumonia patients admitted to the pulmonology ward of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital
in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Methods: This descriptive observational study used the data from pneumonia patients admitted to the
pulmonology ward of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, from February to April 2018. The
data was collected from the patients’ medical records, antibiotic use notes, and culture results of
bacterial antibiotic sensitivity test. The total of antibiotic use was calculated using a defined daily
dose (DDD) per 100 bed days. The quality of antibiotics was assessed using Gyssens method. The
microbial mapping was acquired from a sputum culture test result.
Results: The most prevalent bacteria in pneumonia patients were the Gram-negative bacteria and the
most common species was Acinetobacter baumannii followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. In contrast,
the most common Gram-positive bacteria species was Streptococcus viridans. The total antibiotic use
was 35.53 DDD/100 bed days, and ceftriaxone was the most commonly used antibiotic with 9.23
DDD/100 bed days. Fifty percent of the antibiotic use was in category wise use of antibiotic.
Conclusion: The Gram-negative bacteria were the most common cause of pneumonia and
ceftriaxone was the most commonly used antibiotic for its cure. Fifty percent of the patients received