Ultra-high Temperature (UHT) Processing: Technological Significance and Updates

Author(s): Prasad Rasane*, Nitya Sharma, Sana Fatma, Sawinder Kaur, Alok Jha, Damanpreet Kaur, Jyoti Singh

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 16 , Issue 8 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Milk forms an integral part of the human diet from the nutritional point of view. Besides nutrition, it has also unique functional properties which are harnessed by the industry for numerous uses. Being highly perishable specific techniques are required to minimize the losses during processing and adequate preservation of this precious commodity. In the U.S. and many other parts of the world, the traditional pasteurization of milk requires a minimum heat treatment of 72ºC for 15 seconds with subsequent refrigeration. However, the advent of Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treatment of milk has added a new dimension to the marketing of liquid milk in urban as well as remote areas without the requirement of cold chain management. The distinctive feature of UHT processed milk is that it is commercially-sterile-not pasteurized and so has long shelf life at room temperature. UHT milk, also known as long-life milk, is emerging as an attractive commercial alternative offering a hygienic product of unmatched quality, which can be bought anywhere, at any time and in any quantity. The present review will discuss numerous aspects of UHT processing of milk with reference to historical significance, fundamental principle, various systems used and prerequisites, type of exchangers used, fouling and other defects in system, chemical and microbiological effect of the treatment, its effect on nutritional components, organoleptic quality of milk and the advantage and involved challenges of the process.

Conclusion: Raw milk is easily contaminated with pathogens and microbes and hence its consumption of raw milk is associated with certain ill health effects. Therefore, heating milk before consumption is strongly suggested. Thus, UHT treatment of milk is done to ensure microbial safety and also to extend the shelf life of this highly perishable commodity. Heating milk at such a high temperature is often associated with the change of organoleptic properties like change in flavor or cooked flavor, rancidity due to microbes or acid flavor, etc. But UHT treatment does not substantially decrease the nutritional value or any other benefits of milk.

Keywords: Commercial sterility, consumer acceptance, fouling, heat exchangers, pasteurization, ultra high temperature.

[1]
Chatterjee AK, Acharya RM. Heading for 21st Century. Delhi: Dairy India 1992; pp. 4-24.
[2]
Clare DA, Bang WS, Cartwright G, Drake MA, Coronel P, Simunovic J. Comparison of sensory, microbiological, and biochemical parameters of microwave versus indirect UHT fluid skim milk during storage. J Dairy Sci 2005; 88(12): 4172-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73103-9 ] [PMID: 16291608]
[3]
Lewis MJ, Deeth HC. Heat treatment of milk.Tamime AY, Ed. Milk processing and quality management. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2009.
[4]
Sakkas L, Moutafi A, Moschopoulou E, Moatsou G. Assessment of heat treatment of various types of milk. Food Chem 2014; 159: 293-301.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.020 ] [PMID: 24767058]
[5]
Raikos V. Effect of heat treatment on milk protein functionality at emulsion interface. A review. Food Hydrocoll 2010; 20101(24): 259-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2009.10.014]
[6]
Kessler HG, Horak P. Objective evaluation of UHT milk heating by standardization of bacteriological and chemical effects. Milk Sci Int 1981; 36(3): 129-33.
[7]
Codex A. Codex Alimentarius: milk and milk products. By Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission 2000.
[8]
Kessler HG. Food engineering and dairy technology. Freising, Germany: Verlag A Kessler 1981.
[9]
Mafart P, Couvert O, Gaillard S, Leguerinel I. On calculating sterility in thermal preservation methods: application of the Weibull frequency distribution model. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 72(1-2): 107-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00624-9 ] [PMID: 11843401]
[10]
Claeys WL, Cardoen S, Daube G, et al. Raw or heated cow milk consumption: Review of risks and benefits. Food Control 2013; 31: 251-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.09.035]
[11]
O’Brien J. Heat-induced changes in lactose: isomerization, degradation, Maillard browning. 1995; Available from: . https://agris.fao. org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=BE9500697
[12]
Tetrapak Dairy Index; A biannual news and information source about the dairy industry Available from:. http://www.tetrapak.com/se/documents/Dairyindex_2.pdf2009
[13]
Buabeng-Baidoo E, Mafukidze N, Pal J, et al. Study of water reuse opportunities in a large scale milk processing plant through process integration. Chem Eng Res Des 2017; 121: 81-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2017.02.031]
[14]
Grijspeerdt K, Mortier L, Block JD, et al. Applications of modelling to optimise ultra high temperature milk heat exchangers with respect to fouling. Food Control 2004; 15(2): 117-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(03)00023-9]
[15]
Elliott AJ, Datta N, Amenu B, Deeth HC. Heat-induced and other chemical changes in commercial UHT milks. J Dairy Res 2005; 72(4): 442-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002202990500138X] [PMID: 16223459]
[16]
Datta N, Elliott AJ, Perkins ML, et al. Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment of milk: comparison of direct and indirect modes of heating. Aust J Dairy Technol 2002; 57(3): 211-27.
[17]
Lee AP, Barbano DM, Drake MA. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks. J Dairy Sci 2017; 100(3): 1688-701.
[PMID: 28088421]
[18]
Lewis MJ. Heat treatment of milk. In: Robinson RK, Ed.Modern dairy technology, advances in milk. London: Chapman Hall 1994; pp. 1-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-2057-3_1]
[19]
Bulu A. Flow of a real fluid, Fluid Mchanics, Istanbul Techanical University, College of Civil Engineering. Available from:. https://web.itu.edu.tr/~bulu/fluid_mechanics_uk.htm
[20]
Varzakas TH, Labropoulos AE. The effects of mass flow rate in an indirect ultra-high temperature processing system. Am J Food Technol 2007; 2(6): 490-501.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2007.490.501]
[21]
Andersson I, Oste R. Sensory development and free SH-groups in UHT milk. Milk Sci Int 1992; 47(7): 438-41.
[22]
Datta N, Deeth HC. UHT and aseptic processing of milk and milk products.In: Tewari G, Juneja VK, Eds Advances in thermal and non-thermal food preservation. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing 2007; pp. 63-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470277898.ch4]
[23]
Holdsworth SD. Aseptic Processing and Packaging of Food Products. New York, New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1992.
[24]
Bansal B, Chen XD. A Critical Review of Milk Fouling in Heat Exchangers. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2006; 5: 27-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00080.x]
[25]
Truong TH, Kirkpatrick K, Anema SG. Role of β-lactoglobulin in the fouling of stainless steel surface by heated milk. Int Dairy J 2016; 66: 18-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.10.007]
[26]
Deka D, Datta D. Multi objective optimization of the scheduling of heat exchanger network under milk fouling. Knowl Base Syst 2017; 121: 71-82.
[27]
Tetra Pak. Dairy processing handbook. Sweden: Tetra Pak Processing Systems 1995.
[28]
Pinto CLO, Souza LV, Meloni VAS, et al. Microbiological quality of Brazilian UHT milk: identification and spoilage potential of spore-forming bacteria. Int J Dairy Technol 2018; 71: 20-6.
[29]
Ebringer L, Ferencík M, Krajcovic J. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products--review. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2008; 53(5): 378-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-008-0059-1] [PMID: 19085072]
[30]
Haug A, Hostmark A, Harstad O. Bovine milk in human nutrition - a review. Lipids Human Health Dis 2007; 6: 25.
[31]
Korhonen H, Pihlanto-Leppala A, Rantamaki P, et al. Impact of processing on bioactive proteins and peptides. Trends Food Sci Technol 1998; 9: 307-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(98)00054-5]
[32]
Schanbacher FL, Talhouk RS, Murray FA. Biology and origin of bioactive peptides in milk. Livest Prod Sci 1997; 50: 105-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00082-1]
[33]
Douglas FW Jr, Greenberg R, Farrell HM Jr, Edmondson LF. Effects of ultra-high-temperature pasteurization on milk proteins. J Agric Food Chem 1981; 29(1): 11-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00103a004] [PMID: 7204746]
[34]
Andersson I, Oste R. Nutritional quality of heat processed liquid milk. In: Fox PF, Ed Heat-induced changes in milk. 2nd ed. Brussels: International Dairy Federation 1995; pp. 279-307.
[35]
Lacroix M, Léonil J, Bos C, et al. Heat markers and quality indexes of industrially heat-treated [15N] milk protein measured in rats. J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(4): 1508-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf051304d] [PMID: 16478281]
[36]
Farrell HM Jr, Douglas FW Jr. Effects of ultra-high-temperature pasteurization on the functional and nutritional properties of milk proteins. Kieler Milchw Forsch 1983; 35(3): 345-56.
[37]
Schaafsma G. Effects of heat treatment on the nutritional value of milk. Bull Int Dairy Fed 1989; 238: 68-70.
[38]
Walstra P, Jenness R. Dairy chemistry and physics. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1984.
[39]
Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H. Food composition and nutrition tables. 7th ed. Stuttgart: Scientific Publishing Company 2008.
[40]
Allen JC, Joseph G. Deterioration of pasteurized milk on storage. J Dairy Res 1985; 52: 469-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900024377]
[41]
Finley JW, Shipe WF. Isolation of a flavour producing fraction from light exposed milk. J Dairy Sci 1971; 54(1): 15-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(71)85774-0]
[42]
Gregory ME, Hansen AP, Aurand LW. Controlling light-activated flavour in milk. American Dairy Review 1972; 34: 47-50.
[43]
Smet K, Block J, DeCampeneere S, et al. Oxidative stability of UHT milk as influenced by fatty acid composition and packaging. Int Dairy J 2009; 19: 372-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.02.006]
[44]
Hansen CK, Klingenberg L, Larsen LB, Lorenzen JK, Sørensen KV, Astrup A. The effect of UHT-processed dairy milk on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 2017; 71(12): 1463-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2017.22] [PMID: 28294173]
[45]
Zhang Y, Chang SK. Isoflavone profiles and kinetic changes during ultra high temperature processing of soymilk. J Food Sci 2016; 81(3): C593-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13236] [PMID: 26814612]
[46]
Burton H. Reviews of the progress of dairy science: the bacteriological, chemical, biochemical and physical changes that occur in milk at temperatures of 100-150°C. J Dairy Res 1984; 51: 341-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002202990002361X]
[47]
Weeks CE, King RL. Bioavailability of calcium in heat-processed milk. J Food Sci 1985; 50: 1101-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb13021.x]
[48]
Zurera-Cosano G, Moreno-Rojas R, Amaro-Lopez M. Effect of processing on contents and relationships of mineral elements of milk. Food Chem 1994; 51: 75-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(94)90050-7]
[49]
Berg H. Reactions of lactose during heat treatment of milk: a quantitative studyPhD Thesis Wageningen, University Netherlands 1993.
[50]
Berg H, van Boekel M. Degradation of lactose during heating of milk. I. Reaction pathways. Neth Milk Dairy J 1994; 48: 157-75.
[51]
Olano A, Martinez-Castro I. Modification and interactions of lactose. Bull Int Dairy Fed 1989; 238: 35-44.
[52]
Mottar J, Waes G, Moermans R, et al. Sensoric changes in UHT milk during uncooled storage. Milchwissenschaft 1979; 34(5): 257-62.
[53]
Muschick R, Suhren G, Heeschen W. Studies on the bacteriological and hygienic situtation of ultrahigh-temperature heaters. Milchwissenschaft 1981; 36(2): 80-2.
[54]
Renner E, Kock T. Studies on the sensory quality of hemoglobin in the Federal Republic of Germany. German Diary Farmers 1984; 35(19): 332-4.
[55]
Marchand S, Heylen K, Messens W, et al. Seasonal influence on heat resistant proteolytic capacity of P. lundensis and P. fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples. Environ Microbiol 2009; 11: 467-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01785.x ] [PMID: 19196277]
[56]
Burton H. Chemical and physical changes in milk at high temperatures.In: Ultra high temperature processing of milk and milk products. New York: Elsevier Applied Science 1988; pp. 44-76.
[57]
Marchand S, Duquenne B, Heyndrickx M, et al. Destabilization and off-flavors generated by Pseudomonas proteases during or after UHT processing of milk. Int J Food Contam 2017; 4(2): 1-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40550-016-0047-1]
[58]
Harwalkar VR. Age gelation of sterilized milks.In: Fox PF, et al.Developments in dairy chemistry. London: Applied Science 1982; pp. 229-69.
[59]
Mehta RS. Milk processed at ultra-high-temperatures-a review. J Food Prot 1980; 43(3): 212-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-43.3.212] [PMID: 30822842]
[60]
Mehta RS, Bassette R. Effects of carton material and storage temperature on the flavor of UHT-sterilized milk. J Food Prot 1980; 43(5): 392-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-43.5.392] [PMID: 30822875]
[61]
Early RR, Hansen AP. Effect of process and temperature during storage on ultra-high temperature steam-injected milk. J Dairy Sci 1982; 65: 11-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82147-4]
[62]
Leland JV, Reineccius GA, Lahiff M. Evaluation of copper-induced oxidized flavor in milk by discriminant analysis of capillary gas chromatographic profiles. J Food Dairy Sci 1987; 70(3): 524-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80037-1]
[63]
Gaafar AM, Haque ZU. Chemical changes in ultra-heat-treated milk during storage. 2. Production of volatile flavor compounds. Milchwissenschaft 1991; 46: 33-5.
[64]
López-Fandiño R, Olano A, Corzo N, Ramos M. Proteolysis during storage of UHT milk: differences between whole and skim milk. J Dairy Res 1993; 60(3): 339-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900027680] [PMID: 8376632]
[65]
Garcia-Risco RM, López-Fandiño R. Proteolysis, protein distribution and stability of UHT milk during storage at room temperature. J Sci Food Agric 1999; 79: 1171-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(19990701)79:9<1171:AID-JSFA344>3.0.CO;2-0]
[66]
Valero E, Villamiel M, Miralles B, et al. Changes in flavor and volatile components during storage of whole and skimmed UHT milk. Food Chem 2001; 72: 51-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00203-X]
[67]
Blake MR, Weimer BC, McMahon DJ, Savello PA. Sensory and microbiological quality of milk processed for extended shelf life by direct steam injection. J Food Prot 1995; 58(9): 1007-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-58.9.1007] [PMID: 31137408]
[68]
Nielsen SD, Jansson T, Le TT, et al. Correlation between properties and peptides derived from hydrolyzed-lactose UHT milk during storage. Int Dairy J 2016.
[69]
Jeon IJ. Identification of volatile flavor compounds and variables affecting the development of off-flavor in ultra-high-temperature processed sterile milkPhD Dissertation University of Minnesota, Minnesota, USA 1-116,1976 1976.
[70]
Rerkrai S, Jeon IJ, Bassette R. Effect of various direct ultra-high-temperature heat treatments on flavor of commercially prepared milks. J Dairy Sci 1987; 70: 2046-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80252-7]
[71]
Enright E, Bland AP, Needs EC, et al. Proteolysis and physicochemical changes in milk on storage as affected by UHT treatment, plasmin activity and KIO3 addition. Int Dairy J 1999; 9: 581-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(99)00128-4]
[72]
Datta N, Deeth HC. Age gelation of UHT milk-a review. Food Bioprod Process 2001; 79: 197-210.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1205/096030801753252261]
[73]
Malmgren B, Arrdo Y, Langton M, et al. Changes in proteins, physical stability and structure indirectly heated UHT milk during storage at different temperatures. Int Dairy J 2017; 71: 60-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2017.03.002]
[74]
Shah N, Patel A, Sudhakaram A, et al. Shelf life study of pouch packed UHT milk-a qualitative approach. Indian J Dairy Sci 2016; 69(3): 336-45.
[75]
Grewal MK, Chandrapala J, Donkor O, et al. Predicting sediment formation in ultra high temperature treated whole and skim milk using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Int Dairy J 2017; 74: 39-48.
[76]
Grewal MK, Chandrapala J, Donkor O, et al. FTIR analysis of physicochemical changes in UHT milk during accelerated storage. Int Dairy J 2017; 69: 90-107.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.11.014]
[77]
Scheldeman P, Goossens K, Rodriguez-Diaz M, et al. Paenibacillus lactis sp. nov., isolated from raw and heat-treated milk. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54(Pt 3): 885-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02822-0] [PMID: 15143040]
[78]
Oupadissakoon G. Comparison of the sensory properties of ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk from different countries and preference mapping of UHT milk between U.S. and Thai consumers. MS Thesis. epartment of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, USA. 2007.
[79]
Dunkley WL, Stevenson KE. Ultra-high temperature processing and aseptic packaging of dairy products. J Dairy Sci 1987; 70(10): 2192-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80274-6]
[80]
Soufiyan MM, Aghbashlo M, Mobli H. Exergetic performance assessment of long-life milk processing plant: a comprehensive survey. J Clean Prod 2017; 140: 590-607.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 8
Year: 2020
Page: [1183 - 1195]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1573401316666200217111113
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 28
HTML: 1