Background: Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are potential metal materials in dental and orthopedic
applications, due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Despite
these properties, revision surgery is painful for millions of patients and may cause secondary injury,
calling for a solution to this issue. Compared to antibiotics used in a clinical context, novel biomaterials
display powerful application potential due to their stronger antibacterial activity, reduced
drug resistance and excellent biocompatibility. Antibacterial ions have a crucial effect, particularly
for nanostructured metals.
Objective: This review focuses on the antibacterial functions and osteogenic properties of surface
modification based on Ag, Zn, Cu and other nonmetallic ions.
Methods: The first part of the review briefly describes the issues with bacterial infection of Ti implants.
The methods of surface modification are then introduced in detail. Lastly, other strategies
used to improve antibacterial and osteogenic properties are also provided.
Conclusion: Although anti-infective research is valuable, there is still a gap present between theoretical
strategies and those that are clinically implemented strategies. There is an urgent need to transform
the findings of research into clinical applications.