Background: Nickel (Ni) is mostly applied in a number of industrial areas such as printing
inks, welding, alloys, electronics and electrical professions. Occupational or environmental exposure to
nickel may lead to cancer, allergy reaction, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, as well as
cell damage, apoptosis and oxidative stress.
Methods: In here, we focused on published studies about cell death, carcinogenicity, allergy reactions
and neurotoxicity, and promising agents for the prevention and treatment of the toxicity by Ni.
Results: Our review showed that in the last few years, more researches have focused on reactive oxygen
species formation, oxidative stress, DNA damages, apoptosis, interaction with involving receptors
in allergy and mitochondrial damages in neuron induced by Ni.
Conclusion: The collected data in this paper provide useful information about the main toxicities induced
by Ni, also, their fundamental mechanisms, and how to discover new ameliorative agents for
prevention and treatment by reviewing agents with protective and therapeutic consequences on Ni