Objective: The effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes on brain microvascular
endothelial cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), which mimic cells in deep
hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in vitro, are yet to be studied.
Methods: MSCs were co-cultured with primary rat brain endothelial cells, which were then exposed
to OGD. Cell viability, apoptosis, the inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), and
the activation of inflammation-associated TLR4-mediated pyroptosis and the NF-κB signaling
pathway were determined. Furthermore, exosomes derived from MSCs were isolated and incubated
with endothelial cells to investigate whether the effect of MSCs is associated with MSCderived
exosomes. Apoptosis, cell viability, and the inflammatory response were also analyzed in
OGD-induced endothelial cells incubated with MSC-derived exosomes.
Results: OGD treatment promoted endothelial cell apoptosis, induced the release of inflammatory
factors IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and inhibited cell viability. Western blot analysis showed that
OGD treatment-induced TLR4, and NF-κB p65 subunit phosphorylation and caspase-1 upregulation,
while co-culture with MSCs could reduce the effect of OGD treatment on endothelial cells.
As expected, the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on OGD-treated endothelial cells was similar to
that of MSCs. MSC-derived exosomes alleviated the OGD-induced decrease in the viability of
endothelial cells, and increased levels of apoptosis, inflammatory factors, and the activation of inflammatory
and inflammatory focal pathways.
Conclusion: Both MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes attenuated OGD-induced rat primary brain
endothelial cell injury. These findings suggest that MSC-derived exosomes mediate at least some
of the protective effects of MSCs on endothelial cells.