Background: A significant correlation exists between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and
chronic kidney disease (CKD), where up to 40% of diabetic patients suffer from CKD as a direct result
of diabetic complications. The management of diabetes in CKD patients can be challenging due to their
need for disease-specific diets, as well as increased risks of complications due to malnutrition, which is
why their dietary needs and nutritional requirements require attention to detail, and have to be assessed
and tailored according to the patient’s needs.
Objectives: This systematic review aimed to assess nutritional requirements for type 2 diabetes mellitus
patients with chronic renal failure.
Methods: In this review, 85 articles were screened, and 22 articles were then analyzed and selected as
per the study criteria. PRISMA guidelines were used to select and screen the articles. Data search included
a PubMed search using MeSH terms, and a literature review through the Cochrane library and
the British Medical Journal.
Results: The study highlighted the important nutrients and minerals needed to be maintained within a
specified range in accordance with the patient’s needs and conditions. In addition, dietary restrictions
must be set to prevent disease progression and deterioration. Dietary intake in hemodialysis patients
must be carefully calculated based on their needs, with tight monitoring of their blood glucose. Protein
intake in hemodialysis patients should be determined based on risk-to-benefit ratios.
Conclusion: Dietary requirements should be individualized based on the patient’s disease severity and
progression. Assessment of the patient’s previous and current diet, as well as matching it with their dietary
requirements and preferences is crucial.