Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Amygdalin in Apple Seeds with a Hybrid of f-MWCNTs/CoFe2O4 Nanocomposite

Author(s): Inamuddin*, Suvardhan Kanchi, Heba A. Kashmery

Journal Name: Current Analytical Chemistry

Volume 16 , Issue 5 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Amygdalin is a natural compound known for curing cancer. It is seen in several plants including in bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, apples, and plum seeds (kernels). Amygdalin is a toxic molecule containing a nitrile group, due to which toxic cyanide anion releases by the action of a β-glucosidase. The consumption of amygdalin may lead to cyanide poisoning in the human body. Therefore, for the first time, this work is aimed at developing a novel electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Amygdalin (AMG) in apple seed samples.

Methods: The proposed electrochemical biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing cytochrome c (Cyt c) on a Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE) with nanocomposite of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NPs) and functionalised multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs). The characterization of the synthesized nanocomposite was performed with FTIR, TEM, TGA/DSC, and XRD techniques. Moreover, various experimental parameters such as the effect of pH, deposition time, sweep rate, potential, and enzyme incubation time and interference were also studied.

Results: The fabricated biosensor enhanced the peak current by 10-folds compared to unmodified GCE. Under optimized experimental conditions, the biosensor exhibited linear response from 2 to 20 μM, with a linear regression equation Ipa (μA) = 8.4989 c + 6.6307 (R² = 0.9927). The LOD’s and LOQ’s were found to be 0.0112 μM and 0.2213 μM, respectively.

Conclusion: The designed biosensor was successfully applied for the analysis of AMG content in the apple seed samples. The outcomes of this study identify the efficient electrocatalytic activity of the fabricated nanocomposite as significant electronic factors as major contributors to the electron transfer mechanism, with promising scope for the design of biosensor to sense toxic molecules.

Keywords: Amygdalin, cyclic voltammetry, cytochrome c, differential pulse voltammetry, electrochemical biosensor, Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE).

[1]
Barceloux, D.G. Cyanogenic foods (cassava, fruit kernels, and cycad seeds). Dis. Mon., 2009, 55(6), 336-352.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2009.03.010] [PMID: 19446677]
[2]
Ganjewala, D. Advances in cyanogenic glycosides biosynthesis and analyses in plants: A review. Acta Biol. Szeged., 2010, 54(1), 1-14.
[3]
Sahin, S. Cyanide poisoning in children caused by apricot seeds. J. Health Med. Inform., 2011, 2, 106.
[4]
Balkon, J. Methodology for the detection and measurement of amygdalin in tissues and fluids. J. Anal. Toxicol., 1982, 6(5), 244-246.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/6.5.244] [PMID: 7176555]
[5]
Savic Ivan, M.; Nikolic Vesna, D.; Savic Ivana, M.; Nikolic Ljubisa, B.; Stankovic Mihajlo, Z. Development and validation of HPLC method for the determination of amygdalin in the plant extract of plum kernel. Res. J. Chem. Environ., 16(4), 80-86.
[6]
Voldřich, M.; Kyzlink, V. Cyanogenesis in canned stone fruits. J. Food Sci., 1992, 57(1), 161-162.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb05446.x]
[7]
Haque, M.R.; Bradbury, J.H. Total cyanide determination of plants and foods using the picrate and acid hydrolysis methods. Food Chem., 2002, 77(1), 107-114.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00313-2]
[8]
Ghiulai, V.M.; Socaciu, C.; Jianu, I.; Ranga, F.; Fetea, F. Identification and quantitative evaluation of amygdalin from apricot, plum and peach oils and kernels. Bull. Univ. Agric. Sci. Vet. Med. Cluj-Napoca Agric., 2008, 62.
[9]
Chassagne, D.; Crouzet, J.C.; Bayonove, C.L.; Baumes, R.L. Identification and quantification of passion fruit cyanogenic glycosides. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1996, 44(12), 3817-3820.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf960381t]
[10]
Bolarinwa, I.F.; Orfila, C.; Morgan, M.R. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK. Food Chem., 2014, 152, 133-139.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.002] [PMID: 24444917]
[11]
Chokkareddy, R.; Redhi, G.G.; Karthick, T. A lignin polymer nanocomposite based electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of chlorogenic acid in coffee samples. Heliyon, 2019, 5(3)e01457
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01457] [PMID: 30976709]
[12]
Chokkareddy, R.; Bhajanthri, N.K.; Redhi, G.G. A novel electrochemical biosensor for the detection of ethambutol; Indian J. Chem. A, 2018.
[13]
Chokkareddy, R.; Bhajanthri, N.K.; Redhi, G.G. An Enzyme-Induced novel biosensor for the sensitive electrochemical determination of isoniazid. Biosensors (Basel), 2017, 7(2), 21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios7020021] [PMID: 28587260]
[14]
Bhajanthri, N.; Arumugam, V.; Chokkareddy, R.; Redhi, G. Ionic liquid based high performance electrochemical sensor for ascorbic acid in various foods and pharmaceuticals. J. Mol. Liq., 2016, 222, 370-376.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2016.07.061]
[15]
Rezakazemi, M.; Kurniawan, T.A.; Albadarin, A.B.; Shirazian, S. Molecular modeling investigation on mechanism of phenol removal from aqueous media by single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Mol. Liq., 2018, 271, 24-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.08.132]
[16]
Rezakazemi, M.; Darabi, M.; Soroush, E.; Mesbah, M. CO2 absorption enhancement by water-based nanofluids of CNT and SiO2 using hollow-fiber membrane contactor. Separ. Purif. Tech., 2019, 210, 920-926.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2018.09.005]
[17]
Dormeshkin, D.; Gilep, A.; Sergeev, G.; Usanov, S. Development of CYB5-fusion monitoring system for efficient periplasmic expression of multimeric proteins in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr. Purif., 2016, 128, 60-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2016.08.007] [PMID: 27524697]
[18]
Zhao, Y.; Wang, Z-B.; Xu, J-X. Effect of cytochrome c on the generation and elimination of O2*- and H2O2 in mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem., 2003, 278(4), 2356-2360.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M209681200] [PMID: 12435729]
[19]
Chokkareddy, R.; Bhajanthri, N.; Redhi, G.G.; Redhi, D.G. Ultra-Sensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of pyrazinamide. Curr. Anal. Chem., 2018, 14(4), 391-398.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573411013666170530105000]
[20]
Tafani, M.; Karpinich, N.O.; Hurster, K.A.; Pastorino, J.G.; Schneider, T.; Russo, M.A.; Farber, J.L. Cytochrome c release upon Fas receptor activation depends on translocation of full-length bid and the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition. J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277(12), 10073-10082.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111350200] [PMID: 11790791]
[21]
Swatsitang, E.; Phokha, S.; Hunpratub, S.; Usher, B.; Bootchanont, A.; Maensiri, S. Characterization and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. J. Alloys Compd., 2016, 664, 792-797.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.12.230]
[22]
Velusamy, V.; Palanisamy, S.; Chen, S-W.; Balu, S.; Yang, T.C.K.; Banks, C.E. Novel electrochemical synthesis of cellulose microfiber entrapped reduced graphene oxide: A sensitive electrochemical assay for detection of fenitrothion organophosphorus pesticide. Talanta, 2019, 192, 471-477.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.09.055] [PMID: 30348420]
[23]
Maaz, K.; Mumtaz, A.; Hasanain, S.; Ceylan, A. Synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles prepared by wet chemical route. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2007, 308(2), 289-295.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2006.06.003]
[24]
Georgakilas, V.; Kordatos, K.; Prato, M.; Guldi, D.M.; Holzinger, M.; Hirsch, A. Organic functionalization of carbon nanotubes. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124(5), 760-761.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja016954m] [PMID: 11817945]
[25]
Chokkareddy, R.; Bhajanthri, N.K.; Redhi, G.G. A Novel Electrode Architecture for Monitoring Rifampicin in Various Pharmaceuticals. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2017, 12, 9190-9203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.20964/2017.10.13]
[26]
Chokkareddy, R. Fabrication of sensors for the sensitive electrochemical detection of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Chemistry; Durban University of Technology: Durban, South Africa, 2018, p. 220.
[27]
Gandha, K.; Elkins, K.; Poudyal, N.; Liu, Ping J Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with high coercivity. J. Appl. Physics, 2015, 117(17) 17A736
[28]
Karaagac, O.; Yildiz, B.B.; Köçkar, H. The influence of synthesis parameters on one-step synthesized superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2019, 473, 262-267.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2018.10.063]
[29]
Mahdi Ghazanfari n, A. Influence of MWCNT son the formation, structure and magnetic properties of magnetite. Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., 2015, 40, 152-157.
[30]
Bathinapatla, A.; Kanchi, S.; Singh, P.; Sabela, M.I.; Bisetty, K. Fabrication of copper nanoparticles decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a high performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of neotame. Biosens. Bioelectron., 2015, 67, 200-207.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2014.08.017] [PMID: 25216979]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2020
Page: [660 - 668]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1573411016666200211093603
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 14
HTML: 1