Background: Atopic dermatitis (or eczema) can be defined as a chronic inflammatory
condition accompanied by severe pruritus.
Objective: The prepared gel was evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vitro occlusion studies,
transepidermal water loss studies, skin permeation studies, in vitro skin irritation studies and antiinflammatory
cell line studies.
Methods: In vitro drug release studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. The in vitro occlusion
studies were carried out by the procedure reported by Wissing et al. TEWL determination
was done by the method proposed by Reiger. The skin permeation studies were carried out using
porcine skin using Franz diffusion cells. In vitro skin irritation study was carried out using HETCAM
(Hen’s Egg Test on the Chorioallantoic Membrane) method. Anti-inflammatory cell line
studies were carried out using RAW 264.7 cell lines.
Results: In vitro drug release studies,drug release of nicotinamide from nanoemulsion gel was
found to be more than marketed gel. Kinetic modelling showed a higuchi model with non-fickian
diffusion. In vitro occlusion study showed the percentage of evaporated water from prepared
nanoemulsion formulation after 72 h is very less compared with the other formulations. The
TEWL measurement shows the reduction in TEWL has more in prepared nanoemulsion gel than
other formulations. Anti-inflammatory cell line studies proved that the nanoemulsion gel has inhibition
capacity on COX activity, LOX activity, Inducibe nitric oxide synthase and cellular nitrate
Conclusion: DHA oil based nicotinamidenanoemulsion gel were prepared successfully and the
evaluation of prepared gel showed better drug release and skin permeation with better antiinflammatory