Background: 3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is also known as gallic acid, is an antiinflammatory
agent that could provide beneficial effects in preventing periodontal inflammation. The
present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of gallic acid on experimental periodontitis
in Wistar rats. Alveolar bone loss, osteoclastic activity, osteoblastic activity, and collagenase
activity were also determined.
Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats were used in the present study. Study groups were created as following:
Healthy control (C,n=8) group; periodontitis (P,n=8) group; periodontitis and 30 mg/kg gallic
acid administered group (G30,n=8); periodontitis and 60 mg/kg gallic acid administered group
(G60,n=8). Experimental periodontitis was created by placing 4-0 silk sutures around the mandibular
right first molar tooth. Morphological changes in alveolar bone were determined by stereomicroscopic
evaluation. Mandibles were undergone histological evaluation. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8,
tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 expressions, tartrateresistant
acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclast cells, osteoblast, and inflammatory cell counts
Results: The highest alveolar bone loss was observed in the periodontitis group. Both doses of gallic
acid decreased alveolar bone loss as compared to the P group. TRAP-positive osteoclast cell counts
were higher in the P group, and gallic acid successfully lowered these counts. Osteoblast cells also
increased in gallic acid administered groups. Inflammation in the P group was also higher than those
of C, G30, and G60 groups supporting the role of gallic acid in preventing inflammation. 30 and 60
mg/kg doses of gallic acid decreased MMP-8 levels and increased TIMP-1 levels. BMP levels increased
in gallic acid administered groups, similar to several osteoblasts.
Conclusion: Present results revealed an anti-inflammatory effect of gallic acid, which was indicated
by decreased alveolar bone loss and collagenase activity and increased osteoblastic activity.